Syphilis | That's what we need to know

Syphilis Is Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs) Caused by a bacterium known as Treponema pallidum.

The first sign of syphilis is a small, painless sore. It can appear on the genitals, rectum or mouth. This ulcer Shankri Is called. People often do not notice it then or at all.

Diagnosing syphilis can be difficult because some people may have it for years without any symptoms. However, the earlier syphilis is detected, the better. Syphilis, which goes untreated for a long time, can cause serious damage to such important organs as the heart and brain.

How is syphilis spread?

  • Syphilis is spread only by direct contact with syphilitic chancres during vaginal, anal or oral sexual contact.
  • Syphilis can be transmitted from a pregnant woman with syphilis to an unborn child.

You can not get syphilis in the following ways:

  • Shared toilet
  • Touch the door handles
  • Swimming pools
  • Hot baths
  • Sharing clothes and
  • Sharing dishes and utensils

Signs and symptoms of syphilis

There is syphilis Four stages (primary, secondary, latent and tertiary). Each stage has different signs and symptoms.

Primary syphilis (initial stage)

In the early stages of syphilis you may notice Rti or multiple ulcers. An ulcer occurs at the site of an infection that has entered your body. These ulcers usually occur inside, on, or around the following parts of the body:

  • Penis;
  • Pussy;
  • ანუსი;
  • Rectum;
  • lips;
  • Person.

Ulcers are usually (but not always) solid, round, and painless. The ulcer usually lasts for 3 to 6 weeks and then heals regardless of whether you treat it or not. Even when the ulcer disappears, you still need to undergo a course of treatment - this will stop the infection from progressing to a secondary stage.

Secondary syphilis

In the secondary stage, you may have skin rashes and / or ulcers in the mouth, vagina or anus. This stage usually begins with a rash on one or more areas of your body. The rash may appear when the primary ulcer heals or a few weeks after the ulcer has healed. The rash may be on the palms of the hands and / or feet and may be rough, red or reddish brown on the outside.

The rash usually does not cause itching and is sometimes so weak that you may not even notice it. Other symptoms may include:

  • Fever;
  • Enlarged lymph nodes;
  • Sore throat;
  • Spotty hair loss;
  • headache;
  • Lose weight;
  • Muscle pain and
  • Fatigue (feeling of strong fatigue).

The symptoms of this stage also disappear, regardless of whether you are treated or not, however without the right treatment, your infection will move to a latent and possibly even a third stage of syphilis.

Latent syphilis

The latent stage of syphilis is the period when there are no visible signs or symptoms. Without treatment, you can keep the infection in the body for years.

Tertiary syphilis

Untreated, most people with syphilis do not develop tertiary syphilis. However, if tertiary syphilis develops, it can affect the various organ systems. These include the heart and blood vessels, the brain and the nervous system. Tertiary syphilis is a very serious condition and it can develop 10-30 years after the onset of your infection. In tertiary syphilis, the disease damages your internal organs and can even lead to death. Potential outcomes of tertiary syphilis include:

  • Blindness;
  • Hearing loss;
  • Mental problems;
  • Memory loss;
  • Destruction of soft tissues and bones;
  • Neurological disorders such as stroke or meningitis;
  • Heart disease;
  • Neurosyphilis, which is an infection of the head or spinal cord.

Neurosyphilis,'s eye syphilis and otosyphilis

Without treatment, syphilis can spread to the brain and nervous system (neurosyphilis), the eye (syphilis of the eye), or the ear (otosyphilis). This can happen at any of the stages described above.

Signs and symptoms of neurosyphilis may include:

  • Severe headache;
  • Muscle weakness and / or muscle movement problems;
  • Mental state changes (concentration problem, confusion) and / or dementia (memory, thinking and / or decision making problems).

Signs and symptoms of eye syphilis may include:

  • Eye pain and / or redness;
  • Changes in your sight or even blindness.

Signs and symptoms of otosyphilis may include:

  • Hearing impairment;
  • Whistling, buzzing, whispering or whispering in the ears ("tinnitus");
  • Dizziness or vertigo.

Syphilis and pregnancy

Pregnant women who have syphilis are at risk for miscarriage, stillbirth or premature birth.

Children of women with syphilis can become infected during pregnancy transplacentally or during childbirth - this is known as Congenital syphilis. Most newborns infected with congenital syphilis do not have symptoms, although some do:

  • Rash on the hearts of the hands and feet;
  • Developmental delay;
  • Convulsions;
  • Fever;
  • Enlarged liver or spleen;
  • Anemia;
  • Jaundice;
  • Infectious ulcers;

Later signs and symptoms may include deafness, deformed teeth, and a crooked nose.

Syphilis and HIV

People with syphilis have a higher risk of becoming infected with HIV. Ulcers that develop during syphilis make it easier for HIV to enter the body. It is also important to note that people living with HIV may have different symptoms of syphilis.

If you have HIV, consult your doctor and get more information on how to diagnose the symptoms of syphilis in your condition.

Complications of syphilis

Untreated syphilis can have devastating consequences, including:

  • Gums containing masses of dead, swollen, fibrous tissue. They are most commonly found in the liver. They can also develop in the brain, heart, skin, bones, eyes, and testicles;
  • Blindness;
  • Hearing loss;
  • Brain damage;
  • Paralysis;
  • Meningitis;
  • Heart valve damage;
  • Aneurysm;
  • Aortitis (inflammatory disease of the aorta).

Diagnosis of syphilis

Syphilis can be diagnosed:

  • With blood. A blood test can confirm the presence of antibodies that the body produces to fight infection. Antibodies against the bacteria that cause syphilis stay in your body for years, so the test can be used to diagnose a current or past infection.
  • With cerebrospinal fluid. If syphilis nervous system complications are suspected, your doctor may also suggest a cerebrospinal fluid sample test.
  • Exhaustion from syphilis ulcer by fluid testing

When should we get tested for syphilis?

You should get tested for syphilis regularly if you are sexually active and

  • If you have had unprotected sexual contact with someone likely to have syphilis;
  • If you are a sex worker;
  • If you have unprotected sex with multiple partners;
  • If you are a bisexual or homosexual man;
  • If you have HIV / AIDS;
  • If you are pregnant (All pregnant women should be tested for syphilis during the first prenatal visit. Some pregnant women need to be re-tested in the third trimester at 28 weeks and during childbirth).

If the test result is positive (you are infected), it is important to conduct a full course of treatment. Be sure to complete the full course of antibiotic therapy, even if the symptoms disappear. Also avoid any sexual activity until your doctor tells you it is safe. Also keep in mind that HIV testing is recommended at this time.

People infected with syphilis should notify all recent sexual partners so that they too can be tested and treated.

Treatment of syphilis

Syphilis is easily cured if diagnosed and treated at an early stage.

Syphilis is curable if treated with the right antibiotics and completed the course. However, treatment may not be able to reverse the damage caused by the infection.

Follow-up of treatment

After treating syphilis, your doctor will ask you:

  • Perform blood tests and examinations periodically to make sure you are responding to treatment. Your specific follow-up examination will depend on the stage of syphilis you are diagnosed with;
  • Avoid sexual contact with new partners until treatment is complete and a blood test indicates a cure for the infection;
  • Inform your sexual partners so that they can be tested and treated if necessary;
  • Get tested for HIV.

Once infected with syphilis does not protect you from re-infection with syphilis. Even after successful treatment you can still get syphilis. Only laboratory tests can confirm whether you have an infection. Further, periodic testing is necessary to ensure the success of the treatment. You may still get syphilis if your sexual partner (s) do not get tested for syphilis and do not go through a course of treatment.

Contact your doctor for detailed information about the treatment!

Prevention

There is no vaccine for syphilis, so to prevent the spread of syphilis, follow these recommendations:

  • Refrain from suspicious sexual contact or be in a monogamous relationship. The only way to prevent syphilis is to abstain from sexual contact. The next best option is monogamous sexual contact when neither partner is infected.
  • Use a latex condom. Condoms can reduce the risk of contracting syphilis, but only if the condom covers the syphilis ulcers.

If you suspect you may have syphilis or another sexually transmitted infection (for diagnosis), if you are infected, if you have had an infection (for monitoring) or if you want to be screened for risk factors (for prevention), Laboratory "Sinevo" Offers Then Studies:

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Resources

https://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/stdfact-syphilis.htm

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351756

https://www.healthline.com/health/std/syphilis#prevention

https://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/syphilis#3

 

 

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