Prostate What we need to know

The prostate gland is a chestnut-shaped organ located below the bladder and is part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and testicles.

The prostate is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the bladder) located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.

Two types of tissue are distinguished in the prostate: the main or glandular tissue, whose cells produce prostate juice, and muscle fibers. It produces fluid that helps to thin the sperm and move the spermatozoa, which is one of the necessary conditions for fertilization.

Prostate and its main diseases

  • Prostatitis – Inflammation of the prostate gland is called prostatitis and it can develop in men at any age. There are acute and chronic prostatitis.
  • Adenoma - a pathological enlargement of the present gland - is a benign hyperplasia. It most often develops in men over 50 years old. Therefore, a major role in its development is attributed to hormonal imbalance - violation of the ratio between androgens and estrogens (male and female sex hormones, respectively).
  • Prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma) is one of the most common malignant tumors. It ranks first or second among the causes of death caused by oncological diseases in men.

Contributing factors of prostate diseases

Men's lifestyle significantly increases the risk of developing prostate pathologies and diseases, namely:

  • improper nutrition;
  • ill;
  • passive, physically inactive everyday life;
  • bad habits;
  • sexually transmitted diseases;
  • Passive sex life.

prostate cancer

Prostate, i.e. cancer of the present gland, is the first oncological disease in men. The prostate produces a fluid that helps to thin the sperm and move the spermatozoa, which is one of the necessary conditions for fertilization. Prostate cancer is a cancerous process developed in the prostate.

The symptoms of prostate cancer are hardly visible in the early stage, it is asymptomatic in the early stage. It was believed that prostate cancer is a disease of old men, however, the latest statistical data indicate a sharp increase in the number of men aged 40-50 suffering from tumors of this gland.

Prostate cancer risk factors:

With increasing age, the probability of developing the disease increases;

  • Heredity – the risk of developing prostate cancer is much higher in men whose relatives have had prostate cancer. Family history is also important. The risk of developing prostate cancer increases 7 times for people who have family members with this health problem. In addition, if a man's mother had breast cancer, then he has a higher risk of prostate cancer. This is particularly evident in BRCA mutation carriers, but the presence of other risk factors should also be considered.
  • Obesity – According to some studies, men who consume large amounts of fat, especially from red meat cooked over high heat, may be more likely to develop prostate cancer.
  • Hormones - Fats stimulate the production of testosterone and other hormones, and testosterone accelerates the growth of cancer cells.

 

Symptoms

Prostate cancer can cause signs and symptoms such as:

  • urination problems;
  • decreased strength of urine flow;
  • blood in the urine;
  • blood in semen;
  • pain in the bones;
  • erectile dysfunction.

Etiology

It is not known what causes prostate cancer. Prostate cancer often develops when DNA changes occur in prostate cells. A cell's DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes cause cells to grow and divide faster than normal cells. Abnormal cells continue to live, while other cells die.

It is these abnormal cells that form a tumor that can grow and invade surrounding tissues. Over time, some cancer cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

Diagnosis

Since the symptoms of prostate cancer are almost not manifested in the early stages, the age of the affected men has been dramatically rejuvenated, and modern medicine already has the most accurate methods of early diagnostics.

A blood test called a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance produced by the prostate. PSA levels in the blood of men with prostate cancer may be higher. PSA levels can also be elevated in other conditions that affect the prostate gland. Generally, the higher the PSA level in the blood, the higher the problem with the prostate. But many factors, such as age and race, can affect PSA levels.

In Synevo Labs you will be able to do both studies in one profile “Common and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA)", the test increases the possibility of detecting prostate cancer at an early stage. However, routine use of the PSA test for prostate cancer screening in asymptomatic men is controversial.

Prostate cancer screening has gained special importance: when detected at an early stage, the question is not about prolonging the patient's life by months, but about his complete recovery, without any surgical risks and problems such as sexual dysfunction or urinary incontinence.

When should we take the test?

  • to determine the need for a prostate biopsy;
  • to monitor the effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment;
  • To detect recurrence of prostate cancer.

Complications of prostate cancer and its treatment

Prostate cancer treatment is planned individually after a doctor's visit and analysis, depending on the type, size and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's age, preferences and general state of health.

The treatment process may include: active surveillance, surgical intervention, radiation treatment, drug treatment, lutetium-177 PSMA therapy.

Complications

  • Metastasis – Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder. Cancer metastases may spread through the blood or lymphatic system to the bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones can cause pain and bone fractures.
  • Incontinence – Prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the type and stage of the disease, how severe it is, or how likely it is to improve over time.
  • Erectile dysfunction – Erectile dysfunction can be caused by prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation, or hormones. In addition to/after surgery, medications, vacuum devices, and erection aids are available to treat erectile dysfunction.

Prevention

The risk of developing prostate cancer can be reduced by:

  • a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables;
  • with exercise (most days of the week);
  • by maintaining a healthy weight;
  • with a timely consultation with a doctor;

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