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Urine is produced by the kidneys to expel some impurities and excess substances from the body. After production, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters (together they form the upper urinary tract), from where it passes into the bladder and is excreted from the body through the urethra (together they form the lower urinary tract).
Normally, the urinary tract is sterile, except for the distal urethra, which is colonized with bacteria from the skin of the perineum and in women from the vulva.
Urine Culture (Uroculture) Is an analysis in which material from a urine sample is sown on bacteriological soil to detect and identify the bacteria that cause Urine Of roads Infections (Sgi).
The test is prescribed by a doctor to diagnose urinary tract infections, especially in patients at risk for complications whose disease has been prolonged and who do not respond to first-line treatment. Based on the results, the doctor should select the most suitable (causing the least side effects) antibiotic to treat and prevent complications. Then it is necessary to constantly monitor the effectiveness of therapy.
The test should be performed in conjunction with general, microscopic, and biochemical tests of urine, which in turn can further aid in the diagnostics of urinary tract infections (e.g., detection of changes in urine pH, presence of leukocytes, increase in leukocytesterase activity, and nitrites).
If urosepsis (sepsis caused by the spread of infection from the urinary tract) is suspected, a blood culture test should be added to the urine culture.
A urine culture test is also performed prophylactically in pregnant women because in their case the bacteria found in the urine, even without symptoms of infection (asymptomatic bacterial), can spread to the upper urinary tract in the later stages of pregnancy and cause pyelonephritis.
who Should To conduct test?
People with symptoms of lower urinary tract infections:
People with symptoms of upper urinary tract infections:
Negative - No bacteriological growth was observed within 48 hours.
Positive - If bacteria grow / multiply in the urine sample. A properly collected urine sample containing more than 100 colony-forming units (KTE / ml) of one type of bacterium usually indicates the presence of infection. The type of bacteria is then determined and an antibioticogram is set up (to determine the susceptibility of the bacteria to the antibiotic).
Sometimes more than one type of bacteria is found in the urine. Rarely, it is caused by an infection associated with more than one pathogen; However, it is more likely that the test sample was collected incorrectly and was contaminated with skin, vaginal or fecal bacteria. Mixed flora - which indicates contamination when taking material. The number of bacteria detected and their concentration are not determined. Bacteria are not identified.
Urinary tract infections are caused by a variety of microorganisms that reach the urinary tract where they multiply and over time cause changes in the normal functioning of the kidneys and urinary tract.
According to localization sg It can be "lower" when the urethra and bladder are damaged and "upper" when the kidneys and ureters are damaged.
sg A fairly common problem, most infections affect the lower urinary tract (bladder), which is usually treated. However, if we do not detect the infection early enough, it can spread through the urethra, upwards, to the kidneys, causing dangerous pyelonephritis that damages the kidneys. In the most severe cases, the bacteria can spread into the bloodstream and cause life-threatening sepsis.
Depending on the symptoms, STDs may be asymptomatic - bacterial (bacteria in the urine) without clinical symptoms, and symptomatic - when the bacteriuria is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction (leukocytes in the urine) and clinical manifestations.
The incidence of urinary tract infections varies by sex and age: it is more common in boys in the first year of life (the result of phimosis and paraphimosis at this age), then the ratio equals in early childhood, followed by female dominance due to the female urethra being shorter and closer. Is near the anus, allowing intestinal bacteria to move more easily and colonize the urethra. The incidence of infections increases with age (associated with sexual activity and pregnancy). However, the difference between the sexes disappears in the elderly, with an increase in prevalence in men due to prostate diseases.
Patients with kidney (e.g., kidney stones) and other chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes), immunocompromised, or permanently catheterized individuals are at risk for developing recurrent STDs and complications.
In the elderly, immunocompromised patients, and children, the infection may be asymptomatic or nonspecific (fever, indigestion, weight loss).
Urine Of roads Infections In etiology Most Spread There are microbes:
Correct microbiological diagnostics requires clinical information about the patient (age, sex, pregnancy, antibiotic therapy, history of other urological diseases…).
Bacteriological examination of urine should be performed:
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