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Sodium Na | Laboratory research

Known as: Sodium Na
SKU: 1061


Study material: Venous blood
Response time (working day): 1
The test is done on an empty stomach: no
Home call service: Yes
Country: Georgia

General Information

Sodium (Na +) Is the main cation of the extracellular space, found in all body fluids (blood plasma, gastric, pancreatic juice, bile, intestinal juice, sweat, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) in ionized state. Relatively large amounts of sodium are found in cartilage and slightly less in bones and make up 15-30% of the total amount of sodium in the body.

When should we take the test?

Sodium is one of the important indicators of water-electrolyte and acid-base balance.

  • Assessing the condition when selecting treatment tactics for dehydration and monitoring the condition of patients on infusion therapy;
  • Patients with impaired consciousness, behavior, and signs of CNS excessive excitability;
  • Pathological conditions accompanied by edema;
  • Conditions associated with deficiency or excess of mineralocorticoids;
  • Pathology of the cardiovascular system;
  • Impaired renal function.

Possible interpretation of the results

Increase in sodium concentration:

  • Hypertensive dehydration syndrome (increased sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, overdose of diuretics, fever, prolonged shortness of breath);
  • Insufficient water intake;
  • Excessive intake of sodium salts;
  • Impaired renal sodium excretion (nephrogenic diabetes mellitus, primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism, Itzenko-Cushing syndrome);
  • Certain medications (ACTH, anabolic steroids, androgens, corticosteroids, estrogens, methyldopa, oral contraceptives, sodium bicarbonate).

Reduction of sodium concentration:

1. Reduction of extracellular fluid volume and total sodium:

  • Diuretics;
  • Loss of salt;
  • Addison's disease;
  • Glucocorticoid deficiency;
  • Osmotic diuresis (diabetes mellitus, condition after urinary tract obstruction);
  • Renal tubular acidosis, metabolic alkalosis;
  • Extrarenal loss of Na + and water (pancreatitis, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, heartburn, severe diarrhea, vomiting, sweating);
  • Is ketonic.

2. Moderately elevated extracellular fluid volume and normal total sodium levels:

  • Syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone;
  • Hypothyroidism;
  • Psychogenic polydipsia;
  • Pain, stress, emotions;
  • Postoperative conditions (5% of patients);
  • Medications

3. Increased extracellular fluid volume and increased total sodium levels. (Edema-related diseases):

  • Congestive heart failure;
  • Nephrotic syndrome, renal failure;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Cachexia;
  • Hypoproteinemia.

Additional information

The main role of sodium in the body is to regulate the volume of extracellular fluid. The volume of extracellular fluid directly depends on the total amount of sodium in the body. The sodium concentration in plasma is identical to the sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid. A sharp change in plasma sodium concentration, not accompanied by intracellular potassium-like changes, causes water to flow from the intercellular space into the intracellular space with the development of cell swelling.

Na + is involved in the maintenance of acid-base balance, neuromuscular excitability and dynamic events of polarization and depolarization of cell membranes, as opposed to the action of potassium.

The mechanisms by which the body maintains a constant level of sodium in plasma and extracellular space are renal blood flow, carbonic anhydrase activity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ADH, vasopressin and other steroid hormones, which are concentrated in the blood.

The main source of sodium is table salt and food. For a healthy adult, to avoid a negative sodium balance, it is enough to take 3-5 grams of salt for 24 hours to make up for the loss of Na by sweat and urine.


How to prepare for the test?

No specific training is required.

It is recommended to limit alcohol intake, smoking and strenuous physical activity for at least 12 hours before the test.

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