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Glucose Is the most important monosaccharide in the blood. It is often referred to as "blood sugar", which is produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver. Glucose is an indispensable source of energy that maintains cellular activity. The breakdown of glucose for the needs of metabolism is achieved by the process of glycolysis.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for diagnosing diabetes include:
In the absence of ongoing hyperglycemia with severe metabolic decompensation, the second and third criteria should be confirmed by repeating the test on different days.
Added to this is the ADA's latest recommendation (2010) for the inclusion of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the diagnostics of diabetes mellitus (lower limit 6.5%). The test should be performed using a standardized method.
Diagnostic criteria for diabetes apply to both adults and children.
The test is prescribed by a doctor.
High glucose levels:
Reduced glucose levels:
Interpretation of baseline blood sugar (determined on an empty stomach) is performed according to ADA criteria:
The two hormones that directly regulate blood glucose levels are glucagon and insulin. Glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen to glucose and thus increases the concentration of sugar in the blood. Insulin helps glucose to enter cells, stimulates glycogen production, and lowers blood sugar levels.
Other hormones that play an important role in glucose metabolism are: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoids, adrenaline, thyroxine. All of them increase blood glucose levels, only insulin lowers it. Insufficient amount or absence of insulin significantly increases blood glucose levels and results in the development of diabetes.
Diabetes screening in adults, in the absence of complaints, is recommended in case of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg / m2) regardless of age and for those who have one or more risk factors for diabetes:
In the absence of these criteria, diabetes testing should begin at age 45 years. When normal screening results are obtained, the test is repeated at intervals of up to 3 years (more frequent testing is based on risk factors).
There are two main types of diabetes - Type 1 and Type 2. Given that type 2 diabetes in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last decade, the number of criteria for the American Diabetes Association (ADA) study has also increased, no complaints, overweight In the case of children, the study of which considers two additional factors, from the following factors:
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