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General analysis of urine Is a comprehensive study in which the general properties of urine, its physicochemical characteristics are determined and conducted Precipitation microscopy.
Urine is a biological fluid, the end product of the kidneys, and one of the major components of metabolism, and reflects the condition of the kidneys and other organs and systems of the body. Urine is 96% water, 4% is metabolic products, electrolytes, trace elements, hormones, desquamated cells of the mucous membranes of the tubes and urinary tract, leukocytes, salts and mucus.
The analysis checks the color, transparency, specific gravity, acidity index (pH) of urine, as well as the presence of protein, bile pigments, glucose, ketone bodies and hemoglobin. In addition, urine sediment microscopy is performed
Microscopic examination is performed on clean urine sediment, maximum 4 hours after excretion.
The purpose of microscopy is to determine the quality and quantity of leukocytes, erythrocytes, epithelial cells, salts, bacteria, cylinders, fungi and other inorganic substances.
The result of laboratory tests is not a sufficient basis for diagnostics. Interpretation of results and further diagnostics should be performed only by a physician-specialist.
Color: Beige from yellow to yellow
Specific weight: 010 – 1.025
Reaction (acidity index - pH): 0 – 7.0
protein: Is not revealed
Glucose: Is not revealed
Ketone bodies: Is not revealed
Bilirubin: Is not revealed
Urobilinogen: Is not revealed
Nitrite: Is not revealed
Leukocytesterase (leukocyte specific protein): Is not revealed
Erythrocytes: Is not revealed
Color. Urine color usually ranges from straw yellow to deep yellow. It is determined by the presence of dyes - urochromes, the concentration of which mainly determines the intensity of the color. Strong yellow color Usually indicates relatively high urine density and concentration. Colorless or pale UrineS has a low density and is excreted in large quantities. Beetroot and aspirin give urine Pink-red color, Revenge urine Greenish Gives the elf. If there are blood impurities in the urine, it happens Transparent and reddish. Dark color (tea or beer color) Urine is acquired in diseases of the liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis), as well as by blockage of the bile ducts (in this case, the urine may have a greenish tinge), Gray-white color Indicates the presence of pus.
Transparency. Normal urine is transparent. Acceptable Slight turbidity, which is due to the presence of epithelium and mucus. Intense turbulence Manifested by a mixture of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells of the urinary tract, fat droplets, acidity and salts (urates, phosphates, oxalates). Urine may be stored for a long time Blurred Become as a result of the growth of bacteria.
Specific weight. Demonstrates the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine. Depending on the time of day, the quality and quantity of food, fluids, medications consumed, physical activity, and air temperature. In some diseases this rate increases due to the presence of bacteria, leukocytes, erythrocytes. Increased urine specific gravity may indicate diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infections, and toxicosis in pregnant women.
Urine reaction (pH). Urine acidity largely depends on the food, the amount of water you drink. The rate increases with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseaseს Time; Decreased - vomiting and infectious diseases of the bladder and urethra.
Glucose. Found in urine in diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and kidney disease (nephritis, amyloidosis).
protein. It can be found in urine during kidney damage and heart failure. Protein levels increase during exercise, profuse sweating, and prolonged walking.
Ketone bodies. An increase in the number is observed during advanced diabetes mellitus, as well as during fasting, due to alcohol intoxication, excessive consumption of protein and fatty foods, due to toxicosis in pregnant women.
Bilirubin. Its detection indicates a sharp increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the blood, while the kidneys are doing the job of removing it. Occurs in the urine during liver pathology, impaired bile duct conduction.
Urobilinogen. Obtained from bilirubin. Increases in liver disease.
Red blood cells. They are manifested in diseases of the kidneys (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis), trauma to the urinary tract (most often during the passage of stones), diseases of the bladder and urethra.
Leukocytesterase. In inflammatory diseases the number of leukocytes increases significantly, consequently increasing the concentration of leukocytesterase in the urine. In inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder or urethra, neutrophils predominate in the urine, eosinophils appear in the urine in pyelonephritis, and lymphocytes in autoimmune disorders.
Nitrite. Bacteria are formed during their lifetime. Their presence indicates a urinary tract infection.
Erythrocytes. Red blood cells can be found in the urine from any part of the urinary tract. In women, it can also be a result of menstrual pollution. It is very important to note the presence of microscopically dysmorphic (deformed) erythrocytes (> 30%) indicates the glomerular origin of hematuria.
Leukocytes. A small number of them are also found in normal urine. An increased number of leukocytes indicates an inflammatory process in the urinary tract or surrounding areas. When their numbers are very high and have a degraded appearance or appear in groups, acute urinary tract infection is suspected. Occasionally, pyuria (pus in the urine) is also found for acute non-renal causes such as appendicitis or pancreatitis. It can also develop in non-infectious conditions such as glomerulonephritis (e.g. SLE), renal tubular acidosis, dehydration, stress, and damage to the urethra, bladder, or urethra; Increased lymphocyte and plasma cell counts indicate acute renal transplant rejection, while increased eosinophil counts are associated with tubular-interstitial nephritis and hypersensitivity to penicillin.
Epithelial cells. Can occur in any part of the urogenital tract. They are usually found as a result of physiological shedding of aging cells in the urine. A significant increase indicates inflammation in the area of the urinary tract from which these cells originate. There are 3 types of epithelial cells:
Salts. Most of them, which can be found in urine, have low clinical significance, except in cases of metabolic imbalance, stone formation, or drug regulation.
Cylinders: Arises in the lumen of the renal tubules. The origin of the cylinders is always renal and is an indicator of kidney disease. Cylinders are classified according to their composition, appearance, and cellular components. The width of the cylinders indicates the size of the renal tubules in which they form; Large cylinders are formed in the collecting tubes of the kidney; Their presence usually indicates a marked decrease in the functional capacity of the nephron and the late stage of kidney disease.
Bacteria. Found in fresh urine and is accompanied by a large number of leukocytes. Usually indicates a urinary tract infection.
Fungi: May be found in urine during urinary tract infections, especially in diabetic patients, as well as as a result of skin or vaginal contamination. Candida albicans is the most common fungus.
Erythrocytes: Anticoagulants, amphotericin, aspirin, indomethacin, sulfonamides, X-ray preparations.
Leukocytes: Allopurinol, ampicillin, aspirin, heroin, kanamycin, iron salts.
Specific gravity of urine: Mannitol (i / v), dextran, X-ray contrast media.
pH: Epinephrine, nicotinamide, bicarbonate.
In yellow-orange: B group vitamins, furagin.
In pink: Antipyrine, aspirin.
In red-brown: Metronidazole, sulfonamides.
Ascorbic acid, corticotropin, methionine.
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