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General urine analysis & microscopic examination of urine

Known as: General urine analysis & microscopic examination of urine
SKU: 4904


Research material: "Middle stream" of morning urine
Response time (working day): 1
The test is done on an empty stomach: no
Home call service: Yes
Country: Georgia

General Information

General analysis of urine Is a comprehensive study in which the general properties of urine, its physicochemical characteristics are determined and conducted Precipitation microscopy.

Urine is a biological fluid, the end product of the kidneys, and one of the major components of metabolism, and reflects the condition of the kidneys and other organs and systems of the body. Urine is 96% water, 4% is metabolic products, electrolytes, trace elements, hormones, desquamated cells of the mucous membranes of the tubes and urinary tract, leukocytes, salts and mucus.

The analysis checks the color, transparency, specific gravity, acidity index (pH) of urine, as well as the presence of protein, bile pigments, glucose, ketone bodies and hemoglobin. In addition, urine sediment microscopy is performed

Urine sediment microscopy

Microscopic examination is performed on clean urine sediment, maximum 4 hours after excretion.

The purpose of microscopy is to determine the quality and quantity of leukocytes, erythrocytes, epithelial cells, salts, bacteria, cylinders, fungi and other inorganic substances.

When should we take the test?

  • Comprehensive examination and monitoring of the condition of patients of different profiles along with general urinalysis;
  • Preventive examination;
  • Preparation for surgery;
  • Symptoms of diseases of the genitourinary system (discoloration and odor of urine, frequent or infrequent urination, increase or decrease in daily urine volume, pain in the lower abdomen, pain in the lumbar region, fever, edema);
  • Monitoring the treatment of kidney and urinary tract pathology (during and after treatment);
  • Taking nephrotoxic drugs.

Possible interpretation of the results

The result of laboratory tests is not a sufficient basis for diagnostics. Interpretation of results and further diagnostics should be performed only by a physician-specialist.

Urine characteristics (norm):

Color: Beige from yellow to yellow

Transparency: Transparent

Specific weight: 010 – 1.025

Reaction (acidity index - pH): 0 – 7.0

protein: Is not revealed

Glucose: Is not revealed

Ketone bodies: Is not revealed

Bilirubin: Is not revealed

Urobilinogen: Is not revealed

Nitrite: Is not revealed

Leukocytesterase (leukocyte specific protein): Is not revealed

Erythrocytes: Is not revealed

Color. Urine color usually ranges from straw yellow to deep yellow. It is determined by the presence of dyes - urochromes, the concentration of which mainly determines the intensity of the color. Strong yellow color Usually indicates relatively high urine density and concentration. Colorless or pale UrineS has a low density and is excreted in large quantities. Beetroot and aspirin give urine Pink-red color, Revenge urine Greenish Gives the elf. If there are blood impurities in the urine, it happens Transparent and reddishDark color (tea or beer color) Urine is acquired in diseases of the liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis), as well as by blockage of the bile ducts (in this case, the urine may have a greenish tinge), Gray-white color Indicates the presence of pus.

Transparency. Normal urine is transparent. Acceptable Slight turbidity, which is due to the presence of epithelium and mucus. Intense turbulence Manifested by a mixture of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells of the urinary tract, fat droplets, acidity and salts (urates, phosphates, oxalates). Urine may be stored for a long time Blurred Become as a result of the growth of bacteria.

Specific weight. Demonstrates the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine. Depending on the time of day, the quality and quantity of food, fluids, medications consumed, physical activity, and air temperature. In some diseases this rate increases due to the presence of bacteria, leukocytes, erythrocytes. Increased urine specific gravity may indicate diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infections, and toxicosis in pregnant women.

Urine reaction (pH). Urine acidity largely depends on the food, the amount of water you drink. The rate increases with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease Time; Decreased - vomiting and infectious diseases of the bladder and urethra.

Glucose. Found in urine in diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and kidney disease (nephritis, amyloidosis).

protein. It can be found in urine during kidney damage and heart failure. Protein levels increase during exercise, profuse sweating, and prolonged walking.

Ketone bodies. An increase in the number is observed during advanced diabetes mellitus, as well as during fasting, due to alcohol intoxication, excessive consumption of protein and fatty foods, due to toxicosis in pregnant women.

Bilirubin. Its detection indicates a sharp increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the blood, while the kidneys are doing the job of removing it. Occurs in the urine during liver pathology, impaired bile duct conduction.

Urobilinogen. Obtained from bilirubin. Increases in liver disease.

Red blood cells. They are manifested in diseases of the kidneys (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis), trauma to the urinary tract (most often during the passage of stones), diseases of the bladder and urethra.

Leukocytesterase. In inflammatory diseases the number of leukocytes increases significantly, consequently increasing the concentration of leukocytesterase in the urine. In inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder or urethra, neutrophils predominate in the urine, eosinophils appear in the urine in pyelonephritis, and lymphocytes in autoimmune disorders.

Nitrite. Bacteria are formed during their lifetime. Their presence indicates a urinary tract infection.


Urine microscopy:

Erythrocytes. Red blood cells can be found in the urine from any part of the urinary tract. In women, it can also be a result of menstrual pollution. It is very important to note the presence of microscopically dysmorphic (deformed) erythrocytes (> 30%) indicates the glomerular origin of hematuria.

Leukocytes. A small number of them are also found in normal urine. An increased number of leukocytes indicates an inflammatory process in the urinary tract or surrounding areas. When their numbers are very high and have a degraded appearance or appear in groups, acute urinary tract infection is suspected. Occasionally, pyuria (pus in the urine) is also found for acute non-renal causes such as appendicitis or pancreatitis. It can also develop in non-infectious conditions such as glomerulonephritis (e.g. SLE), renal tubular acidosis, dehydration, stress, and damage to the urethra, bladder, or urethra; Increased lymphocyte and plasma cell counts indicate acute renal transplant rejection, while increased eosinophil counts are associated with tubular-interstitial nephritis and hypersensitivity to penicillin.

Epithelial cells. Can occur in any part of the urogenital tract. They are usually found as a result of physiological shedding of aging cells in the urine. A significant increase indicates inflammation in the area of ​​the urinary tract from which these cells originate. There are 3 types of epithelial cells:

  • Renal tubular epithelial cells Associated with pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, salicylate poisoning, and tubular lesions associated with renal transplant rejection.
  • Transitional epithelial cells Urine is found in the area from the pelvis to the initial section of the urethra.
  • Flat epithelial cells Urine is excreted from the urethra and vagina.

Salts. Most of them, which can be found in urine, have low clinical significance, except in cases of metabolic imbalance, stone formation, or drug regulation.

Cylinders: Arises in the lumen of the renal tubules. The origin of the cylinders is always renal and is an indicator of kidney disease. Cylinders are classified according to their composition, appearance, and cellular components. The width of the cylinders indicates the size of the renal tubules in which they form; Large cylinders are formed in the collecting tubes of the kidney; Their presence usually indicates a marked decrease in the functional capacity of the nephron and the late stage of kidney disease.

  • Hyaline cylinders - can be detected in mild kidney disease; In small quantities they may be present in normal urine and in increased quantities during intense physical exertion or dehydration.
  • Leukocyte cylinders - Less common and their presence indicates acute pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, glomerular nephritis, glomerulonephritis.
  • Erythrocyte cylinders - Their presence means renal hematuria and is always abnormal. It is usually found in the following diseases: glomerulonephritis (acute and chronic), glomerular nephritis, Goodpasture syndrome, subacute bacterial endocarditis, renal trauma, renal infarction, severe pyelonephritis, perineal tuberculosis, congestive heart failure.
  • Grain cylinders - Found during severe pathological processes in the kidneys, but reversible can be found after intense physical activity.
  • Epithelial cylinders - Rarely found. They may appear in the urine after exposure to nephrotoxins or viruses (cytomegalovirus, hepatitis viruses) that cause tubular necrosis.
  • Wax cylinders - Occurs in severe chronic renal failure, malignant hypertension, renal amyloidosis, diabetic nephropathy, acute renal disease, renal transplant rejection, inflammation and tubular degeneration.
  • Fat cylinders - Found in nephrotic syndrome, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, chronic glomerulonephritis, lupus erythematosus and other cases.

Bacteria. Found in fresh urine and is accompanied by a large number of leukocytes. Usually indicates a urinary tract infection.

Fungi: May be found in urine during urinary tract infections, especially in diabetic patients, as well as as a result of skin or vaginal contamination. Candida albicans is the most common fungus.

Substances and drugs that increase levels:

Erythrocytes: Anticoagulants, amphotericin, aspirin, indomethacin, sulfonamides, X-ray preparations.

Leukocytes: Allopurinol, ampicillin, aspirin, heroin, kanamycin, iron salts.

Specific gravity of urine: Mannitol (i / v), dextran, X-ray contrast media.

pH: Epinephrine, nicotinamide, bicarbonate.

Substances and preparations that affect the color of urine:

In yellow-orange: B group vitamins, furagin.

In pink: Antipyrine, aspirin.

In red-brown: Metronidazole, sulfonamides.

Substances and medicines that reduce pH:

Ascorbic acid, corticotropin, methionine.

Additional information


How to prepare for the test?

  • Do not take diuretic (diuretic) medications for 48 hours
  • Do not take alcohol, spicy, salty foods, foods that change the color of urine for 12 hours.
  • Abstain from sexual intercourse for 12 hours
  • Do not do the test during menstruation and for 2 days after the end of menstruation
  • Do not do the test for 5-7 days after the cystoscopy.
  • Rinse the genitals with warm running water before collecting urine.

Rules for collecting urine:

  • To collect the material, rinse the periurethral area with laundry soap and water or wipe with a disinfectant wipe, then pat dry with a clean, dry towel.
  • The first and last portion of urine should be flushed and the middle portion of urine containing at least 10-15 ml should be placed in a sterile urine container.
  • Urine should be brought to the laboratory within one hour of ingestion. If you can not bring the test material to the laboratory for one hour, then it should be stored in the refrigerator for a maximum of 2 hours.

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