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Gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT)

Known as: Gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT)
SKU: 1051


Study material: Venous blood
Response time (working day): 1
The test is done on an empty stomach: Yes
Home call service: Yes
Country: Georgia

General Information

GGT - gammaglutamyltranspeptidase, gammaglutamyltransferase - is an enzyme that is mainly found in the kidneys, liver, pancreas and less so in other tissues.

GGT synthesis can be induced by hepatic cholestasis, chronic alcohol consumption, and therapeutic doses of drugs such as phenytoin. GGT levels are elevated in hepatocytes during hepatoma, in hepatocytes compressed by liver tumors, and in cirrhotic liver regenerative areas. Increased serum GGT levels are also caused by damage to the cell membrane by toxins (including alcohol), ischemia, infections. GGT is a specific enzyme in the liver and bile ducts.

When should we take the test?

GGT is a diagnostic marker of damage to the hepatobiliary system (liver, bile ducts) and is defined in the following diseases:

  • Acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A, B, C, E viruses;
  • Acute hepatitis caused by other viruses - e.g. EBV, CMV;
  • Chronic hepatitis;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Gallbladder disease;
  • Cholecystitis and cholangitis;
  • Jaundice - GGT is an important indicator of the cause of jaundice - liver disease or obstruction of the bile ducts by stones (stones), liver tumors, or by the pancreas;
  • Autoimmune diseases of the liver;
  • Autoimmune diseases of the biliary tract - primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerotic cholangitis;
  • Chronic Alcohol Abuse - GGT is the most sensitive indicator of prolonged alcohol consumption.
  • Long-term therapy with medications such as phenobarbital, phenytoin and others.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total and direct bilirubin fraction are usually determined in conjunction with GGT.

The importance of GGT is more informative for biliary system diseases (cholecystitis, cholangitis, obstructive jaundice) than the importance of ALP because it increases earlier and lasts longer.

Possible interpretation of the results

  • In acute viral hepatitis, GGT is increased in smaller amounts than other liver enzymes (AST, ALT);
  • The increases in GGT and ALP are usually parallel. A significant increase in GGT is found during biliary system obstruction;
  • In cirrhosis of the liver the rate may increase by 2-10 times;
  • Higher rates are also observed in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver), chronic hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerotic cholangitis;
  • The degree of increase in GGT during alcoholism depends on the duration of abuse and the amount taken. Enzyme levels gradually decrease after cessation of alcohol consumption but remain above normal for a long time.
  • Acute pancreatitis;
  • Acute myocardial infarction;
  • Acute renal failure;
  • Diabetes mellitus (slightly elevated);
  • Tumors (slight increase);
  • Cerebral hemorrhages (slight increase).

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