Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type I / II | Antibodies

Additional information

Response time (working day) | Time to results

1 – 2

Location of analysis | Where is performed



Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Is the etiological agent of human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is a retrovirus that has the ability to infect and destroy Helper T lymphocytes.

There are two types of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that differ in geographical area and in turn have subtypes.

HIV is transmitted through contaminated blood and blood products, through sexual contact, and from an infected mother to her baby before and after birth. The main risk groups are: homosexuals, hemophiliacs, blood recipients, intravenous drug users and medical staff.

The production of anti-HIV / anti-HIV antibodies is noticeable in 1-2 weeks after infection and their persistence continues throughout life.

reason of research

Combined test for HIV Is a fourth-generation test that combines the detection of HIV antibodies and antigens. It is possible to identify all major types and subtypes of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Simultaneous detection of antibodies and antigens leads to an increase in sensitivity in the early stages of seroconversion (the moment when antigens in the blood are replaced by antibodies produced against them).

In addition, the test allows better identification of patients with already developed disease who have altered viral antigen and antibodies produced against them.

The test is not used:

  • As a means of screening in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients;
  • As a screening test for HIV-positive mothers in children;
  • As an additional test for all types of rapid HIV testing.

How to prepare for the test?

No special preparation is required for the test.

Testing is preferred Fasting.

Research material

Venous blood

Possible interpretation of the results

Negative result (Absence of antibodies) usually indicates the absence of infection. However, adverse outcomes do not rule out acute or a history of HIV infection in patients with reactive HIV-1 / -2 antigens or antibodies in previous studies.

In case of suspicion of early infection, DNA / RNA testing of HIV-1 / HIV-2 is recommended by PCR, based on the patient's clinical and epidemiological indications.





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