Insulin | Antibodies

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Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Leads the development Autoantibodies Appearance of various antigens of pancreatic islet cells, including insulin. In individuals with a genetic predisposition (family history of type 1 diabetes), the presence of several types of antibodies is a predictive marker of the development of type 1 diabetes.

The process of beta cell destruction in the history of diabetes development includes 5 phases:

1. Genetic predisposition;

2. Positive autoantibodies;

3. Abnormal response of insulin to glucose tolerance test;

4. Pathological test of oral glucose tolerance;

5. Manifestation of clinical diabetes.

After the onset of type 1 diabetes, insulin antibody levels decrease or are virtually undetected. However, after starting insulin therapy, antibody levels may increase (especially when using insulin of animal origin). Therefore, higher doses of insulin may be required for treatment because of the antibody-induced insulin resistance.

Most cases of type 1 diabetes develop sporadically, in the absence of a family history of diabetes. Environmental factors are thought to play an important role in the development of diabetes because they act as triggers of the autoimmune process.

When should I get tested for anti-insulin antibodies?

  • Assessing the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed patients;
  • Differential diagnostics between type 1 and 2 diabetes;
  • Evaluation of patients with insulin-resistant diabetes.

How to prepare for the test?

The test is preferably fasted (you should not take food for at least 7 hours).

Research material

Venous blood

Possible interpretation of the results

Antibody levels rise:

  • Type 1 diabetes;
  • Individuals prone to developing type 1 diabetes;
  • Emergence of anti-insulin antibodies (often of animal origin) during insulin therapy;
  • Allergic reactions to exogenous insulin;
  • Norm (about 1% of healthy people).


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