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General analysis of urine

Known as: General analysis of urine
SKU: 4004


Research material: whole part of morning urine
Response time (working days): 1 ****
The test is done on an empty stomach: no
Home call service: Yes
Country: Georgia

General Information


General analysis of urine Is a comprehensive study in which the general properties of urine, its physicochemical characteristics are determined and sediment microscopy is performed.

The analysis checks the color, transparency, specific gravity, acidity index (pH) of urine, as well as the presence of protein, bile pigments, glucose, ketone bodies and hemoglobin. In addition, qualitative and quantitative determination of urine sediment microscopy - inorganic substances and blood cells - erythrocytes, leukocytes and urinary cells.

Urine is a biological fluid, the end product of the kidneys, and one of the major components of metabolism, and reflects the condition of the kidneys and other organs and systems of the body. Urine is 96% water, 4% is metabolic products, electrolytes, trace elements, hormones, desquamated cells of the mucous membranes of the tubes and urinary tract, leukocytes, salts and mucus.

When should we take the test?

  • Comprehensive examination and monitoring of the condition of patients of different profiles;
  • Preventive examination;
  • Preparation for surgery;
  • Symptoms of diseases of the genitourinary system (discoloration and odor of urine, frequent or infrequent urination, increase or decrease in daily urine volume, pain in the lower abdomen, pain in the lumbar region, fever, edema);
  • Monitoring the treatment of kidney and urinary tract pathology (during and after treatment);
  • Taking nephrotoxic drugs.

Possible interpretation of the results

The result of laboratory tests is not a sufficient basis for diagnostics. Interpretation of results and further diagnostics should be performed only by a physician-specialist.

Urine characteristics (norm):

Color: Beige from yellow to yellow

Transparency: Transparent

Specific weight: 010 – 1.025

Reaction (acidity index - pH): 0 – 7.0

protein: Is not revealed

Glucose: Is not revealed

Ketone bodies: Is not revealed

Bilirubin: Is not revealed

Urobilinogen: Is not revealed

Nitrite: Is not revealed

Leukocytesterase (Leukocyte specific protein): Is not revealed

Erythrocytes: Is not revealed

Color. Urine color usually ranges from straw yellow to deep yellow. It is determined by the presence of dyes - urochromes, the concentration of which mainly determines the color intensity. A strong yellow color usually indicates a relatively high density and concentration of urine. Colorless or pale urine has a low density and is excreted in large quantities. Beetroot and aspirin give the urine a pinkish-red color, Revand gives the urine a greenish tinge. If there are blood impurities in the urine, it becomes transparent and reddish. Dark color (tea or beer color) urine acquires in liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), as well as blockage of the bile ducts (in this case the urine may have a greenish tinge), grayish-white color indicates the presence of pus.

Transparency. Normal urine is clear. Slight turbidity due to the presence of epithelium and mucus is acceptable. Intense turbidity is manifested due to the mixing of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells of the urinary tract, fat droplets, acidity and salts (urates, phosphates, oxalates). When stored for a long time, urine can become cloudy due to bacterial growth.

Specific weight. Demonstrates the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine. Depending on the time of day, the quality and quantity of food, fluids, medications consumed, physical activity, and air temperature. In some diseases this rate increases due to the presence of bacteria, leukocytes, erythrocytes. Increased urine specific gravity may indicate diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infections, and toxicosis in pregnant women.

Urine reaction (pH). Urine acidity largely depends on the food, the amount of water you drink. The rate increases with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease; Decreased - vomiting and infectious diseases of the bladder and urethra.

Glucose. Found in urine in diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and kidney disease (nephritis, amyloidosis).

protein. It can be found in urine during kidney damage and heart failure. Protein levels increase during exercise, profuse sweating, and prolonged walking.

Ethnic bodies. An increase in the number is observed during advanced diabetes mellitus, as well as during fasting, due to alcohol intoxication, excessive consumption of protein and fatty foods, due to toxicosis in pregnant women.

Bilirubin. Its detection indicates a sharp increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the blood, while the kidneys are doing the job of removing it. Occurs in the urine during liver pathology, impaired bile duct conduction.

Urobilinogen. Obtained from bilirubin. Increases in liver disease.

Red blood cells. They are manifested in diseases of the kidneys (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis), trauma to the urinary tract (most often during the passage of stones), diseases of the bladder and urethra.

Leukocytesterase. In inflammatory diseases the number of leukocytes increases significantly, consequently increasing the concentration of leukocytesterase in the urine. In inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder or urethra, neutrophils predominate in the urine, eosinophils appear in the urine in pyelonephritis, and lymphocytes in autoimmune disorders.

Nitrite. Bacteria are formed during their lifetime. Their presence indicates a urinary tract infection.

Substances and drugs that increase levels:

Erythrocytes: Anticoagulants, amphotericin, aspirin, indomethacin, sulfonamides, X-ray preparations.

Leukocytes: Allopurinol, ampicillin, aspirin, heroin, kanamycin, iron salts.

Specific gravity of urine: Mannitol (i / v), dextran, X-ray contrast media.

pH: Epinephrine, nicotinamide, bicarbonate.

Substances and preparations that affect the color of urine:

In yellow-orange: B group vitamins, furagin.

In pink: Antipyrine, aspirin.

In red-brown: Metronidazole, sulfonamides.

Substances and medicines that reduce pH:

Ascorbic acid, corticotropin, methionine.


Additional information

How to prepare for the test?

  • Do not take diuretic (diuretic) medications for 48 hours
  • Do not take alcohol, spicy, salty foods, foods that change the color of urine for 12 hours.
  • Abstain from sexual intercourse for 12 hours
  • Do not do the test during menstruation and for 2 days after the end of menstruation
  • Do not do the test for 5-7 days after the cystoscopy.

Rules for collecting urine:

  • To collect the material, rinse the periurethral area with laundry soap and water or wipe with a disinfectant wipe, then pat dry with a clean, dry towel.
  • The first and last portion of urine should be flushed and the middle portion of urine containing at least 10-15 ml should be placed in a sterile urine container.
  • Urine should be brought to the laboratory within one hour of ingestion. If you can not bring the test material to the laboratory for one hour, then it should be stored in the refrigerator for a maximum of 2 hours.

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