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Cervical Cancer Screening: PAP Test & HPV DNA

Known as: Cervical Cancer Screening: PAP Test & HPV DNA
SKU: 297


Research material: urogenital smear
Response time (working days): 14 ****
The test is done on an empty stomach: no
Home call service: No.
Country: EU

General Information

**** Test is done once a week - Friday

Cervical cancer Is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the cervix - the lower part of the uterus that joins the vagina.

The various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause sexually transmitted infections play an important role in the development of most cervical cancers.

When exposed to HPV, the body's immune system usually prevents the virus from causing damage. However, in a small percentage of people, the virus persists for years, contributing to the development of a process that causes some cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells.

You can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer through screening tests and vaccinations that protect you from HPV infection.

Screening tests can help detect cervical cancer and precancerous cells. Most guidelines suggest screening for cervical cancer and precancerous changes at 21 years of age.

Screening tests include Pap test (PAP) და HPV DNA determination test.

Pap test looks for cancer cells, HPV test for virus, which can cause normal cells to degenerate into precancerous cells.

When should we take the test?

  • If you are 21 to 29 years old You should start having a Pap test at the age of 21. If your Pap test result is normal, your doctor may tell you that you can repeat the test after three years.
  • If you are 30 to 65 years old Talk to your doctor about which test option is right for you:
  1. Pap test only. If your result is normal, you should repeat the test after 3 years;
  2. HPV test only - Primary HPV testing. If your result is normal, your doctor may tell you that the test should be repeated after 5 years;
  3. HPV test with Pap test. If both of your results are normal, your doctor may tell you that the test should be repeated after 5 years;
  • If you are over 65 years old Your doctor may tell you that you no longer need to be screened if:
  1. You have normal screening test results for several years, or
  2. You had your cervix removed as part of a total hysterectomy for non-cancerous conditions

Possible interpretation of the results

Studies have shown that the combined use of Pap test and HPV test can detect high-risk intraepithelial lesions with greater sensitivity and specificity. Thus, screening protocols that cover both tests are highly sensitive.

Another advantage of the method is that it avoids the inconvenience of taking two separate samples for testing.

Getting a negative result from both tests assures us that the risk of cervical cancer is very low.

Additional information

About 95-99,7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection is more common in young, sexually active women under 25 years of age. The average duration of HPV infection is 4-20 months because in 2 years in 90% of people HPV infection is eliminated with the help of the immune system. In the remaining 10%, the infection persists, which is associated with a higher risk of developing intraepithelial flat lesions of the cervix.

More than 120 different types of HPV have been identified, and about one-third of them can infect genital epithelial cells. HPV types with high oncogenic risk: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59. Among them, HPV 16 is the most carcinogenic type, which causes 50-60% of cervical cancer And HPV 18, which is involved in the development of cervical cancer in 10-12% of cases.

Cervical cancer screening

The introduction of screening programs in developed countries leads to a significant and permanent reduction in morbidity and mortality. The purpose of screening is to detect preoperative lesions of the cervix.

Pap test (Also called a smear test) is the most commonly used test for cervical cancer screening. The study cells are collected from the cervical transformation zone and analyzed under a microscope. The introduction of HPV testing has further improved the early detection process of cervical cancer.

Babes-Papanicolaou test (Pap test) by liquid cytology

There are no clinically significant differences between the liquid cytology method (LBC) and the conventional cytology method (conventional Pap test) in terms of their specificity and sensitivity. However, the liquid cytology method has several important advantages:

  • The frequency of unsatisfactory samples is significantly reduced - at normal cytology - 9%, at LBC - 1,6%;
  • If there is blood in the sample, the LBC technique provides better information;
  • Infectious microorganisms such as Candida hyphae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes simplex virus, better detected by LBC technique;
  • LBC allows for additional testing and HPV genotyping with the same test material.

The PAP test is a very useful screening tool used in the early stages of cervical cancer, but it should always be followed by other tests before making a therapeutic decision. A Pap test effectively identifies patients who need additional tests (e.g., colposcopy) for the clinician to be able to make a therapeutic decision.

Detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV types

HPV screening test detects high risk 14 HPV types: HPV - 16, 18, 31, 45, 51, 52 - types with individual genotypes and other HPV types - from the 2nd or 3rd group of the virus: P1: 33/58; P2: 56/59/66; P3: 35/39/68. The test is based on the determination of HPV DNA by real-time PCR (PCR) research method. Unlike most HPV tests, it allows the genome to replicate regions of the genome that are specific to a particular type of HPV, thus improving the specificity of detection. In addition, by selecting target sequences at the E6 and E7 gene levels, there is no risk of obtaining a false-negative result except in rare cases. Another potential advantage of the test is that enhanced genotyping may lead to a more accurate assessment of the persistence of HPV-specific genotypes in women participating in screening programs and ultimately better stratification of patients according to the degree of risk.

The test is used for both primary cervical cancer screening and liquid cytology after the Pap test, in the latter case the test can be performed within 3 weeks from the date of the PAP liquid cytological sample on the same test material.


How to prepare for the test?

  • Do not take the sample during menstruation;
  • Do not take the test if you are pregnant, if you have leukemia, 6-8 weeks after giving birth and during a course of radiation therapy;
  • Patients should abstain from sexual intercourse and vaginal shower for 48 hours before taking the sample. The use of intravaginal tampons, topical contraceptives, vaginal gels, creams and medications should be avoided.

Research material

  • Cells from both exocervical, endocervical, and transition areas (transformation zone) are required for the study (for both screening tests).
  • The study material should be taken by a professional.






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