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Human papillomavirus (HPV) Infection is common in young, sexually active, women under 25 years of age. The average duration of HPV infection is 4-20 months. Within 2 years, 90% of people infected with HPV are "cleansed" of the infection by the immune system. In the remaining 10% - the infection persists, which is associated with an increased risk of developing intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV genotypes; A prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer and its previous lesions. The presence of oncogenic types of HPV has been shown in almost all cases of cervical cancer.
The test is not used:
The HPV test has a clinical sensitivity of 93% and a clinical specificity of 87.7%.
Identified More than 120 different types of HPV And about one-third of them can infect genital epithelial cells. They can be classified as follows:
between them HPV16 is the most carcinogenic type, which causes 50-60% of cervical cancers while HPV18 Participates in about 10-12% of cases. Thus, 96% of all cases of cervical cancer belong to one of 13 types of HPV (groups 1 and 2A).
Persistence of the virus for 1 year or 2 years, especially HPV16, results in CIN3 (carcinoma-in-situ) - abnormal cells are found in the entire thickness of the cervical surface layer, although the process is not widespread in the deeper layers) or more advanced 3-20% risk of developing lesions (CIN30 +); Untreated CIN3 has a 30% chance of causing invasive cervical cancer within 30 years, while only 3% of untreated CIN1 can become invasive.
Cervical cancer screening The primary goal is to prevent cancer morbidity and mortality. The optimal screening strategy is to identify pre-existing lesions that may progress to invasive cancer and at the same time prevent transient HPV infections.
HPV (human papillomavirus) Screening test, Detects 14 high-risk HPV types: HPV - 16, 18, 31, 45, 51, 52 - types with individual genotypes and other HPV types - from the 2nd or 3rd group of the virus: P1: 33/58; P2: 56/59/66; P3: 35/39/68. The test is based on the determination of HPV DNA by real-time PCR (PCR) research method. Unlike most HPV tests, it allows the genome to replicate regions of the genome that are specific to a particular type of HPV, thus improving the specificity of detection. In addition, by selecting target sequences at the E6 and E7 gene levels, there is no risk of obtaining a false-negative result except in rare cases. Another potential advantage of the test is that enhanced genotyping may lead to a more accurate assessment of the persistence of HPV-specific genotypes in women participating in screening programs and ultimately better stratification of patients according to the degree of risk.
Genotyping of HPV infection allows:
Avoid taking samples during menstruation. Also, 48 hours before the sample, patients should avoid sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, intravaginal tampons, topical contraceptives, vaginal gels, creams and medications.
Both tests are performed using a single study material.
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