Glucose | Laboratory research

SKU 1079 Categories , Tag

Additional information

Response time (working day) | Time to results

1

Location of analysis | Where is performed

Georgia

11.70

Glucose Is the most important monosaccharide in the blood. It is often referred to as "blood sugar", which is produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver. Glucose is an indispensable source of energy that maintains cellular activity. The breakdown of glucose for the needs of metabolism is achieved by the process of glycolysis.

The two hormones that directly regulate blood glucose levels are glucagon and insulin. Glucagon accelerates the conversion of glycogen to glucose and thus increases the concentration of sugar in the blood. Insulin helps glucose to enter cells, stimulates glycogen production, and lowers blood sugar levels.

Other hormones that play an important role in glucose metabolism are: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoids, adrenaline, thyroxine. All of them increase blood glucose levels, only insulin lowers it. Insufficient amount or absence of insulin significantly increases blood glucose levels and results in the development of diabetes.

Diabetes screening in adults, in the absence of complaints, is recommended in case of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg / m2) regardless of age and for those who have one or more risk factors for diabetes:

  • First-degree relatives with diabetes;
  • History of gestational diabetes or severe childbirth (> 4000 g);
  • Belongs to endangered races or ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, etc.);
  • Blood pressure ≥140 / 90 mmHg;
  • Low HDL-cholesterol (<35 mg / dL) and / or elevated triglycerides (> 250 mg / dL);
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome;
  • History of cardiovascular disease;
  • Decreased glucose tolerance in previous tests;
  • Other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g. Acanthosis Nigricans.)

In the absence of these criteria, diabetes testing should begin at age 45 years. When normal screening results are obtained, the test is repeated at intervals of up to 3 years (more frequent testing is based on risk factors).

There are two main types of diabetes - Type 1 and Type 2. Given that type 2 diabetes in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last decade, the number of criteria for the American Diabetes Association (ADA) study has also increased, no complaints, overweight In the case of children, the study of which considers two additional factors, from the following factors:

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes in first- or second-degree relatives;
  • Races or ethnic groups at risk of developing diabetes (African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, etc.);
  • Indications for insulin resistance or conditions related to insulin resistance (eg acanthosis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome);
  • History of maternal diabetes or gestational diabetes during pregnancy.

When should we take a glucose test?

  • Diabetes screening, diagnostics and monitoring;
  • Diagnosis of hypoglycemia.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for diagnosing diabetes include:

  • Subjective symptoms (polyuria, polydipsia, unexplained weight loss) and, in addition, "random" glucose levels> 200 mg / dL (> = 11,1 mmol / L) or
  • Fasting blood sugar level> = 126 mg / dL (> = 6,99 mmol / L) or
  • Blood sugar level> = 200 mg / dl 75 hours after glucose intake.

In the absence of ongoing hyperglycemia with severe metabolic decompensation, the second and third criteria should be confirmed by repeating the test on different days.

Added to this is the ADA's latest recommendation (2010) for the inclusion of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the diagnostics of diabetes mellitus (lower limit 6.5%). The test should be performed using a standardized method.

Diagnostic criteria for diabetes apply to both adults and children.

The test is prescribed by a doctor.

How to prepare for the test?

  • Fasting (at least 8 hours must have elapsed since taking in any calories);
  • Without special preparation - the sample is taken 2 hours after eating;
  • Without special preparation - the patient indicates how much time has passed since the last meal

Research material

Venous blood

Reference values

Interpretation of baseline blood sugar (determined on an empty stomach) is performed according to ADA criteria:

  • Normal level - 60-99 mg / dl
  • Modified basal blood glucose (IFG) levels - 100-125 mg / dL
  • Diabetes> = 126 mg / dl

Probable interpretation of results

High glucose levels:

  • diabetes;
  • Cushing's disease;
  • Acromegaly / Gigantism;
  • Pheochromocytoma;
  • Pituitary adenoma (secretion of growth hormone);
  • Hemochromatosis;
  • Acute / chronic pancreatitis;
  • Pancreatic neoplasm;
  • Glucagon secretory tumor;
  • Chronic kidney disease;
  • Progressive liver disease;
  • Vitamin B1 deficiency (Wernicke encephalopathy);
  • Acute emotional or physical stress (myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures).

Reduced glucose levels:

  • Insulinoma (nesulin secreting tumor);
  • Tumors outside the pancreas (e.g. hepatoma);
  • Addison's disease;
  • Hypopituitarism;
  • Malabsorption;
  • Acute liver necrosis (hepatitis, intoxication);
  • Premature infants in mothers with diabetes;
  • Enzyme deficiency (e.g. galactosemia);
  • Overdose of insulin;
  • Reactive hypoglycemia (hyperinsulinism, endocrine disorders);
  • Postprandial hypoglycemia (after gastrointestinal surgery, hereditary fructose intolerance, galactosemia).

Resources

https://www.synevo.bg/glyukoza-serum/

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