Potassium Iodide | That's what we need to know

What is Potassium Iodide?

Most nuclear accidents are released into the atmosphere Radioactive iodine, which can get into the body. If thyroid cells absorb too much radioactive iodine, this can lead to Development of thyroid cancer A few years after exposure.

KI (Potassium Iodide) Is a stable (non-radioactive) iodine salt belonging to anti-thyroid medications. It can inhibit the absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland, thus protecting this gland from radiation damage.

The thyroid gland is the organ that is most sensitive to radioactive iodine.

KI blocks the penetration of radioactive iodine into the thyroid gland. When a person takes KI, the stable iodine in the medicine is absorbed by the thyroid gland. KI "fills" the thyroid gland with non-radioactive iodine and prevents the absorption of radioactive molecules, which are then excreted in the urine. The thyroid gland will not be able to absorb more iodine - neither stable nor radioactive - for the next 24 hours after being "filled" with non-radioactive iodine.

When administered at the recommended dose, KI is effective To reduce the risk of thyroid cancer At risk of radioactive exposure in individuals or populations.

  • Potassium iodide does not protect the body from getting radioactive iodine in it and it cannot cure health problems caused by radioactive iodine after thyroid damage.
  • Potassium iodide protects only the thyroid gland and not other organs from radioactive iodine.
  • Potassium iodide can not protect the body from radioactive iodine other than radioactive elements - if radioactive iodine poisoning is not observed, KI intake is not recommended and may harm the body.
  • Table salt and iodine-rich foods do not contain enough iodine to block radioactive iodine from getting into the thyroid gland. Do not use table salt or food as a substitute for KI.
  • Do not use dietary supplements that contain iodine in the form of KI. They can be harmful and ineffective.
  • The thyroid gland can not distinguish between stable and radioactive iodine. It absorbs both equally.

Potassium iodide does not protect a person 100% from radioactive iodine. Its protection of the thyroid gland depends on 3 factors:

Time elapsed since radioactive contamination: The earlier a person gets KI, the more time the thyroid gland will have to "fill" with stable iodine.

Absorption: The amount of stable iodine that is absorbed by the thyroid gland depends on how quickly KI is absorbed into the bloodstream.

Dosage of radioactive iodine: Reducing the total amount of radioactive iodine that a person "gets" during contamination will reduce the amount of radioactive iodine that is harmful to the thyroid gland.

KI (Potassium Iodide) You should only take it on your doctor's recommendation as there are health risks associated with taking KI.

Who can take potassium iodide (KI)?

The fetal and infant thyroid glands are most at risk for radioactive iodine damage. Young children and people with low thyroid iodine are at risk for thyroid damage.

  • Infants (including lactating children)

Infants have the highest risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to radioactive iodine. All infants should be given the recommended dose of KI for infants. Infants (especially infants) should receive a single dose of KI. Overdose can lead to further developmental problems. In this case other protective measures must be taken. In cases where more than one dose is required, medical supervision may be required.

  • children

The FDA recommends that all children receive KI (potassium iodide) if they are exposed to or possibly exposed to radioactive iodine, unless they are allergic to iodine (contraindications).

  • youth

The FDA recommends that in the event of or exposure to radioactive iodine, all young people (18 to 40 years of age) receive the recommended dose of KI. Young people are less sensitive to the effects of radioactive iodine than children.

  • Pregnant women

Because all forms of iodine cross the placenta, pregnant women should take KI to protect the fetus. Pregnant women should take only one dose of KI in case of exposure to or possible exposure to radioactive iodine.

  • Breastfeeding mothers

Breastfeeding mothers should receive only one dose of KI in case of exposure or possible exposure to radioactive iodine. They should be given priority over other protective measures.

  • Adults

Adults over the age of 40 should not take KI unless public health or emergency management officials say they are expected to be exposed to very large doses of radioactive iodine. People over the age of 40 have the lowest risk of developing thyroid cancer or thyroid damage after being exposed to radioactive iodine. Allergic reactions or side effects are more common in those over 40 years of age when taking KI.

Who should not take potassium iodide (KI)?

  • Hypersensitivity (or allergy) to iodine;
  • Herpetiform dermatitis;
  • Hypocomplementemic vasculitis;
  • Persons with cardiovascular disease and nodular thyroid gland;
  • KI should be used with caution in individuals with multinodular goiter, Graves' disease, and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially if treatment lasts for several days.

Side effects of KI

Taking a higher or more potent dose of potassium iodide often does not provide more protection and can lead to serious illness or death.

A single dose of potassium iodide protects the thyroid gland for 24 hours. Sometimes a single recommended dose is usually all that is needed to protect the thyroid gland.

In some cases, people are exposed to radioactive iodine for more than 24 hours, in which case your doctor may recommend taking a single dose of potassium iodide every 24 hours for several days.

Avoid repeated dosing of potassium iodide in pregnant and lactating women and newborns.

High doses or prolonged use of potassium iodide can lead to iodine poisoning.

Potassium iodide can cause side effects (necessarily Tell your doctor about side effects):

  • Swollen glands
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • stomach-ache
  • headache

Some side effects can be serious. If you have any of the following symptoms, you should stop taking potassium iodide and contact your doctor immediately:

  • Rash
  • Urticaria
  • Fever
  • Pain in the joints
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat, hands or feet
  • Difficulty breathing, speaking or swallowing
  • wheezing
  • Lack of air
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain

Taking the recommended dose of potassium iodide can cause rare side effects related to thyroid health.

These rare side effects are more likely and common if a person:

  • Takes a higher dose than KI recommended
  • Take the drug for several days
  • Has a pre-existing disease of the thyroid gland

Infants (less than 1 month old) who receive more than one dose of potassium iodide are at risk of developing hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone levels are very low). Without treatment, hypothyroidism can lead to brain damage.

Avoid repeated dosing of KI in infants. It is necessary to monitor the treatment by a doctor.

If taken for “long enough”, KI can cause it Temporary hypothyroidism (thyroid insufficiency). "Long enough" is different for everyone. Prolonged treatment can become a serious problem too Small For children.

Side effects are unlikely when KI is used at the recommended dose and for a short time, therefore it is essential to consult your doctor before taking the medication and get accurate instructions and recommendations regarding the dosage and intake of the medication.

Before taking potassium iodide:

  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to potassium iodide, iodine, any other medicines, or any of the ingredients in potassium iodide tablets or liquids.
  • Tell your doctor what medications, vitamins, supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.
  • Tell your doctor if you have hyperthyroid dermatitis (an ongoing skin disease that causes itching and blisters on the body), hypocomplementemic vasculitis (a persistent condition that causes frequent urticaria and other symptoms such as swelling and joint pain), or if you have thyroid Disease (many nodes in the thyroid gland) and heart disease. You should not take potassium iodide if you have any of the conditions listed.
  • If you have or have ever had thyroid disease, such as Graves' disease (a condition in which the body attacks the thyroid gland that causes it to become overactive) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, you can take potassium iodide on a doctor's recommendation in an emergency. If you need to take potassium iodide for more than a few days, you should consult your doctor.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or are breast-feeding. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you can take potassium iodide, as recommended by your doctor, in an emergency. Your doctor will closely monitor your health.
  • If you are giving potassium iodide to a child under one month of age, call your child's doctor as soon as possible for recommendations and monitoring.

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Resources

https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/emergencies/ki.htm#whatIs

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/bioterrorism-and-drug-preparedness/frequently-asked-questions-potassium-iodide-ki#Who%20should%20not%20take

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a611043.html

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