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Multiple myeloma | What we need to know

Multiple myeloma belongs to the group of cancerous blood diseases that are formed from plasma cells. Healthy plasma cells help the body fight infection by producing antibodies.

In multiple myeloma, degenerated plasma cells grow in colonies in the bone marrow and destroy healthy cells. Instead of producing antibodies, tumor cells produce abnormal proteins that cause various complications of the disease.



In the early stages of the disease, symptoms are sometimes not even observed. Later it appears:

  • Pain in the bones, especially along the spine, in the sternum and hip bones
  • Heart beat
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling tired
  • weight loss
  • muscle weakness
  • Frequent infections
  • Constipation
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination



Multiple myeloma starts from a single plasma cell in the bone marrow. Probably due to a genetic mutation, the cell begins to degenerate into a cancerous myeloma cell, its rapid growth and development and the formation of new foci. This inhibits the production of healthy blood cells in the bone marrow and causes them to be destroyed.

Myeloma cells continue to try to make antibodies, but the body cannot use the defective antibodies, called monoclonal or M proteins. Their accumulation leads to blockage and damage of kidney tubules. Myeloma cells damage bone tissue and increase the risk of pathological fractures.

Multiple myeloma often begins Monoclonal gamopathy of undetermined significance In the form in which M protein is observed in the blood, although its level is not yet high, so there are no symptoms or complications.


risk factors

Age - the disease is more common over the age of 60

Race – Multiple myeloma is more common in blacks

Gender – Myeloma is more common in men than in women

Family anamnesis - the presence of the disease in first and second degree relatives increases the risk of developing it

Existence of gynopathies of uncertain significance – multiple myeloma often begins with gynopathies.



There is no prevention of the disease




Frequent infections - it is difficult for the immune system to fight infectious agents

Decreased bone density and fractures

Kidney damage – due to blockage of renal tubules by M protein

Anemia – the increased cellular tissue in the bone marrow inhibits the formation of blood cells, causing anemia and other complications




Laboratory data are important for diagnostics.


Both blood and urine tests are used to monitor multiple myeloma as well as complications.

  • General blood test - for evaluation of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
  • whey protein M of protein - Determination to assess the amount of protein (antibodies) synthesized by myeloma tissue. The study is used to monitor both disease activity and treatment effectiveness.
  • Determination of serum light chains. Kappa and lambda light chains are components of M protein and are also produced by myeloma cells. It is used to diagnose light chain myeloma when the only pathological indicator in the blood is the presence of light chains.
  • Limitation of calcium in the blood. Blood calcium levels increase during bone-decomposing processes
  • Urea, creatinine, electrolytes in the blood - to assess kidney function.
  • ß2- microglobulinDetermination of s in blood. In myeloma disease, its concentration in the serum increases. The study is used to assess disease progression.
  • Determination of serum albumin. Albumin is a protein produced in the liver. In multiple myeloma, liver damage causes a decrease in albumin concentration. A survey to assess informational disease progression.
  • Liver function tests: Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase.
  • LDH Determination of lactate dehydrogenase - To determine disease progression and prognosis.



Immediate treatment for multiple myeloma is not always necessary. If myeloma is slow-growing and does not cause acute symptoms and complications, it is possible to observe at the first stage.


for the diagnostics of multiple myeloma, Laboratory "Synevo" We offer the following studies:

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Also, for monitoring and predicting disease complications, "Synevo" We offer:

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Health care starts with accurate analyzes



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