Fats are essential substances for the growth and development of the body. They participate in the synthesis of important substances, such as hormones, vitamin D, as well as in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
An excess amount of fat accumulates not only under the skin and between internal organs (visceral fat), but also in the walls of blood vessels, which threatens the normal flow of blood and causes life-threatening complications.
The level of lipids in the body changes due to age, a number of diseases, certain medications or lifestyle (overconsumption of saturated and trans fats, sedentary lifestyle, obesity). As a result, we get hyper or dyslipidemia - fat increase and imbalance in the body, which is the cause of many diseases and complications.
Cholesterol - It is an essential component of the cell membrane, which participates in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins by the cell. It also participates in the synthesis of estrogens, cortisol, testosterone, vitamin D. The body gets cholesterol from food and synthesizes it.
Triglycerides - Triglycerides present in fat cells break down and release energy, which is used in metabolic processes. Triglycerides are synthesized from fatty acids in the liver and intestines.
Cholesterol and triglycerides do not have the ability to circulate freely in the blood, they are bound to specific proteins and transported in the form of lipoproteins (protein-lipid complexes).
There are several types of lipoproteins:
- High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
- Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
- Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) the so-called Bad cholesterol forms plaques on the endothelium of blood vessels and hinders blood flow.
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) It is also considered bad cholesterol because it also participates in the formation of lipid plaques.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) "Good" cholesterol because it travels to the liver and releases it into the blood.
What is hyperlipidemia? Dyslipidemia?
Hyperlipidemia is an increase in the concentration of "bad" cholesterol.
Dyslipidemia is a violation of the ratio between "bad" and "good" cholesterol, sometimes without increasing the total concentration.
In both cases, "bad" lipoproteins are deposited in blood vessels, which increases the risk of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases.
Diseases and complications caused by dyslipidemia
Cardiovascular diseases are in the first place:
- heart attack
- Coronary artery damage
- Damage to the carotid arteries
- Sudden cardiac arrest
- Injuries of peripheral arteries
- Microvascular diseases
Disturbance of lipid metabolism causes such diseases as:
- Fatty liver
- Primary biliary cholangitis
It also causes complications in the following diseases:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Chronic kidney diseases
Specific symptoms are not expressed in the initial stage of hyper or dyslipidemia. The development of symptoms is associated with the formation of lipid buckles on the blood vessel walls and changes in blood flow properties. When the integrity of the plaque on the wall breaks down and clots, the entire artery is blocked. This is followed by the development of acute symptoms (eg heart attack, severe chest pain, shortness of breath, etc.) that require immediate intervention.
Risk factors for the development of hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia:
- Saturated and trans-fat rich foods
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Genetic predisposition
"Synevo" offers laboratory tests for diagnosing lipid metabolism disorders that you can book online:
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