What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus Is a chronic, metabolic disease that causes an increase in blood sugar (glucose) levels.
Most of the food you eat is broken down into glucose and excreted in the blood. Glucose is vital to your health because it is an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and other tissues and is a major source of energy for your brain.
Normally, when your blood sugar level rises, the pancreas responds Insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; It is considered to be the main anabolic hormone in the body and regulates the absorption of glucose from the blood into the liver, adipose and skeletal muscle cells. Beta cells are sensitive to blood sugar levels - they secrete insulin in response to high glucose levels and inhibit insulin secretion when blood glucose levels are low. Insulin enhances glucose uptake and metabolism, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
If you have diabetes, your body either does not make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it produces effectively. When there is not enough insulin in the body or the cells stop responding to insulin, excess blood sugar remains, which over time can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, vision loss and kidney disease.
There are several different types of diabetes. Are forms of chronic diabetes Type 1 და Type 2 diabetes; Belongs to potentially reversible forms of diabetes Prediabetes და Gestational diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes Is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the cells of the pancreas that are involved in the production of insulin. It is unclear what causes this process. About 10% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. The symptoms of the disease often develop rapidly. It is usually found in young people (children and adults).
Type 2 diabetes It develops when your body becomes resistant to insulin and a large amount of glucose accumulates in the blood. With type 2 diabetes, your body is unable to maintain normal blood sugar levels. The disease occurs in about 90-95% of people with diabetes (mostly in adults, but more and more often in children, adolescents and young adults). Sometimes with type 2 diabetes, there are no symptoms, so if you are at risk, it is important to constantly monitor your blood sugar levels.
Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing the disease. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or "delayed" by a healthy lifestyle - weight loss, healthy eating and physical activity.
Prediabetes Occurs when your blood sugar level is above normal, but it is not high enough to diagnose type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
Gestational diabetes Is high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This type of diabetes is caused by placental insulin-blocking hormones. Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who have never had diabetes before. If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may be at high risk of developing health problems. Gestational diabetes usually disappears after the baby is born, but the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases in the future. Your little one will have a higher risk of developing obesity in childhood or adolescence and is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later.
The symptoms of diabetes vary depending on how high the blood glucose level is. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not have symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms appear faster and more severely.
General symptoms of diabetes:
In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have impaired libido, erectile dysfunction, and muscle weakness.
Even women with diabetes may also have frequent urinary tract infections, fungal infections, and dry, itchy skin.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes:
Most women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms. The disease is diagnosed during a routine sugar test or glucose tolerance test. In rare cases, there is a strong thirst and frequent urination.
The role of insulin
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas.
The role of glucose
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. It is known that your immune system - which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses - attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, resulting in either little or no insulin being produced in the body and instead of being transported to the cells, glucose accumulates in the blood.
Type 1 diabetes is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors, although exactly what factors are being discussed is still unclear.
Causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
In prediabetes (can cause type 2 diabetes) and type 2 diabetes, your cells become insulin resistant and the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of being transferred to the cells, glucose accumulates in the blood.
The exact cause is still unknown, although it is believed that genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is closely linked to the development of the disease, although not all people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Causes of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to maintain pregnancy. These hormones make cells more resistant to insulin. Normally, the pancreas produces extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes it fails to produce enough insulin. In this case, a very small amount of glucose is absorbed by the cells and a very large amount of glucose remains in the blood, leading to gestational diabetes.
Risk factors for developing diabetes depend on the type of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes
Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, factors that may indicate an increased risk of developing the disease include:
Researchers do not fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, while others do not. It is clear that certain factors increase the risk of developing the disease, including:
Some pregnant women are at greater risk of developing the disease than others. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:
Age. Women over the age of 25 are at risk.
History. Your risk increases if you have prediabetes or if a close family member has type 2 diabetes. You are also at high risk if you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, if you gave birth to a very overweight baby or if you had unexplained stillbirths.
Weight. Being overweight before pregnancy increases the risk of developing gestational diabetes.
High blood sugar levels damage organs and tissues throughout the body. The higher the blood sugar level and the longer it is maintained, the greater the risk of complications.
Complications associated with diabetes include:
Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can cause problems that affect both the mother and the baby. Complications that affect a child may include:
The mother may develop complications such as preeclampsia or type 2 diabetes. She may also need a caesarean section.
There is also an increased risk of maternal gestational diabetes during future pregnancies.
Diabetes can cause serious health complications, but you can manage the condition with medication and lifestyle changes.
For the prevention of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is impossible to prevent.
Children can get both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar control is especially important in young people because the disease can damage important organs such as the heart and kidneys.
Type 1 diabetes
The autoimmune form of diabetes often begins in childhood. One of the main symptoms is frequent urination. Children with type 1 diabetes may begin to wet the bed despite toilet training.
Extreme thirst, fatigue and hunger are also signs of this condition. It is important that children with type 1 diabetes be treated immediately. The disease can cause high blood sugar and dehydration, which can be referred to an ambulance.
Type 2 diabetes
The first type of diabetes was called "juvenile diabetes" because type 2 was very rare in children. Now, as more children suffer from excess weight or obesity, type 2 diabetes becomes more common in this age group.
About 2% of children with type 40 diabetes have no symptoms.
Untreated type XNUMX diabetes can lead to lifelong complications including heart disease, kidney disease and blindness. Healthy eating and exercise will help your child regulate their blood sugar levels and prevent these problems.
Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk of developing the disease should undergo diagnostic tests for diabetes.
Regular testing for gestational diabetes is necessary in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
Diagnostic tests for type 1 diabetes include:
Diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes include:
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes
Your doctor will likely assess your risk factors for developing gestational diabetes in early pregnancy:
If you are at high risk for gestational diabetes - For example, if you were obese in early pregnancy, had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, or have a diabetic mother, father, sibling or child - your doctor may perform diagnostic tests for diabetes at your first prenatal visit.
If you are at moderate risk for gestational diabetes, A gestational diabetes screening test will likely be performed in the second trimester - typically 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Your doctor may use the following screening tests:
An important part of managing diabetes is maintaining a healthy weight through a healthy diet and physical activity.
Type 1 diabetes Treatment includes insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, constant monitoring of blood sugar levels, and counting of carbohydrates taken. Treatment of type 2 diabetes It mainly involves lifestyle changes, constant monitoring of blood sugar levels, along with antidiabetic medications, insulin, or both.
For some patients who have type 1 diabetes, a pancreas transplant may be a treatment option. If you have a successful pancreas transplant, you will no longer need insulin therapy. However, transplantation is not always successful and the procedure involves serious risks.
Gestational diabetes Controlling blood sugar levels during pregnancy is essential to keeping your baby healthy and preventing complications during childbirth. In addition to a healthy diet and exercise, your treatment plan may include regular monitoring of your blood sugar levels and, in some cases, the use of insulin or oral medications.
Your doctor will also monitor your blood sugar levels during childbirth. Because if your blood sugar level rises, your baby may produce large amounts of insulin - which can lead to lower blood sugar levels at birth.
If you have Prediabetes, A healthy lifestyle (healthy diet and physical activity) will help you to normalize your blood sugar levels and prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
Sometimes medications like metformin are also an option!
If you are at high risk for diabetes, including when your prediabetes gets worse or you have cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome, sometimes medical treatment (e.g. metformin, statins, etc.) is also resorted to.
Signs of dangerous blood sugar levels
Because many factors can affect your blood sugar levels, sometimes problems that require urgent care can arise, such as:
Hyperglycemia (High blood sugar). Blood sugar levels can rise for a number of reasons, including overeating, illness, or not taking medications that lower glucose levels. Check your blood sugar level as directed by your doctor and observe the signs and symptoms of high blood sugar - frequent urination, strong thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you have hyperglycemia, you will need to change your diet plan, medications, or both.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (Increased levels of ketones in your urine) Signs include: loss of appetite, weakness, vomiting, fever, stomach pain, and a sweet odor in the mouth.
This condition is more common in type 1 diabetes.
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome. Signs and symptoms of a life-threatening condition include high blood sugar above 600 mg / dL (33,3 mmol / L), dry mouth, extreme thirst, fever, drowsiness, confusion, vision loss, and hallucinations. Hyperosmolar syndrome is caused by high blood sugar levels.
It is manifested in people with type 2 diabetes and is often preceded by some disease.
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). If you are taking medications that lower your blood sugar, including insulin, your blood sugar can drop for a variety of reasons, including skipping meals and engaging in more than normal physical activity. Blood sugar levels drop if you take too much insulin or other medication that promotes insulin secretion by the pancreas.
Check your blood sugar regularly and watch for signs and symptoms of low blood sugar - sweating, shivering, weakness, hunger, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, heart palpitations, irritability, slurred speech, drowsiness, dizziness and drowsiness. Low blood sugar is treated with fast-absorbing carbohydrates such as fruit juice or glucose tablets.
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