The site is temporarily down due to maintenance. Sorry for the inconvenience.

The site is temporarily down due to maintenance. Sorry for the inconvenience.

Avitaminoses What we need to know

Vitamins are organic compounds that are important for maintaining health. They are not synthesized in the body, so it is necessary to supply them from external sources. Some vitamins function as coenzymes (enzyme catalysts), some as hormones. Their deficiency creates certain pathological conditions - avitaminosis.

The study of avitaminosis and infectious processes has always been connected. Both issues received significant attention in the late 19th century. In the history of epidemiology, infectious diseases and avitaminosis were almost always epidemic in nature, and since their causes are different, it caused great confusion at that time. Thus, beriberi (B1 avitaminosis), pellagra (B2 avitaminosis) and suravandi (С avitaminosis) - widespread diseases in the Middle Ages, were considered infectious pathologies.


Vitamins are divided into two groups: fat-soluble (A, D, E, K) and water-soluble (B, C) vitamins.


A Vitamin - Retinol and its derivatives are involved in the processes of B and T helper lymphocyte maturation, cell differentiation and apoptosis, and in the molecular mechanisms of vision. Carotenes are precursors of vitamin A.

Vitamin D. That is, calciferol is a derivative of sterol and participates in maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphates in the body.

Vitamin E That is, tocopherol functions as an antioxidant.

Vitamin K Participates in the synthesis of some blood clotting factors.

B vitamins – It is presented with several vitamin complexes, which include: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7 or H), folic acid (B9) and cobalamin (B12).

All these vitamins perform the function of coenzymes and are involved in enzymatic processes in various metabolic pathways.

C Vitamin That is, ascorbic acid is an important agent involved in anti-oxidation processes, in the synthesis of collagen and catecholamines, Fe3 +of Fein recovery, which is necessary for the absorption of iron from the intestine.

The term avitaminosis refers to the lack of vitamins, which is caused by the lack of necessary substances and is the cause of many pathologies.

Nutrient deficiencies develop gradually and are sometimes difficult to detect. Avitaminoses begin with general symptoms, such as general weakness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, sleep disorders, muscle pain, and others. All these symptoms are often explained by our busy lifestyle, and until specific symptoms develop, the true cause of the condition remains practically unnoticed.



  1. Weakness

In most cases of vitamin deficiencies, general weakness, fatigue, and drowsiness are observed. This is mainly due to the violation of red blood cell synthesis processes. This is most often caused by B12 and iron deficiency, which disrupts the processes of oxygen transport by erythrocytes and causes the mentioned symptoms.


  1. hair problems

Brittle hair and nails can be a symptom of vitamin B7 or biotin deficiency. Vitamin B7 is involved in energy production processes, just like other B vitamins.

In addition, hair loss is caused by a deficiency of vitamins B3 and D

Vitamin B3 or niacin regulates the maintenance of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which is necessary for the health of bones, tendons and muscles.


  1. Ulcers in corners of lips

Ulcers in the corners of the lips are often associated with a deficiency of B group vitamins - B1, B2, B6, B12 and iron.

Vitamin B1, or thiamine, also participates in the processes of energy generation from storage and the functioning of the nervous system

Vitamin B2 or riboflavin ensures proper functioning of the skin, eyes, nervous system and energy production processes.

Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine participates in energy storage processes and also in the synthesis of hemoglobin and erythrocytes.


The most common forms of avitaminosis in children are:

  • Vitamin D deficiency - accompanied by pathologies of the bone system
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency and associated anemia
  • Vitamin A deficiency - which increases the risk of infectious processes, inhibits bone growth.



D vitamin deficiency

Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption, blood clotting processes and immune processes. It acts like a steroid hormone in the body.

During the summer months, sunlight helps our body produce vitamin D, but during the winter months, it needs to be regulated through supplements or food.

Vitamin D deficiency has a serious effect on the immune system and even increases the risk of cancer.

Deficiency symptoms are often masked and appear gradually over months or years.

Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include: bone mineralization disorder, tendency to spontaneous fractures. Muscle pain, general weakness, depressed mood, constipation. The degree of deficiency increases with age. Vitamin D deficiency is often the cause of growth retardation in children.


C vitamin deficiency

Vitamin C is an important antioxidant that protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals. It ensures the processes of growth and renewal of skin, cartilage, bones and teeth. Its deficiency, or scurvy, is often due to socioeconomic issues. Typical symptoms of deficiency are coarse hair, bruises on the skin and inflammation of the mucous membrane with bleeding. Suravandi is a reversible process, easily cured by adding vitamin C to the diet.


A vitamin deficiency

As we mentioned, vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is an important factor in the functioning of cell membranes and the process of vision. Most people get more than enough of this vitamin and there is no problem of deficiency. However, vitamin A deficiency is a significant problem in many developing countries.

Vitamin A deficiency can cause both temporary and permanent vision impairment. It is one of the causes of total blindness.

Deficiency also suppresses the immune system, which increases mortality from various causes, especially among children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers.


B12 vitamin deficiency

Cyanocobalamin is a necessary component for the production of red blood cells and neurotransmitters in the nervous system.

Its deficiency causes B12 deficiency anemia, weakness, loss of coordination, memory disorders, burning of the tongue, depression and sensitivity disorders in the limbs (numbness, feeling of ants running, etc.). It is found in animal foods, so the risk of developing its deficiency is high in people with vegetarian and vegan eating habits, as well as in the periods after bariatric surgery.

Important disorders associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are megaloblastic anemia and homocysteinemia. Increased concentration of homocysteine ​​in the blood increases the probability of developing cardiovascular diseases.


B6 vitamin deficiency

Pyridoxine is involved in the development of the nervous system, especially in the womb and in the first years of life.

Various kidney and intestinal diseases are often accompanied by vitamin B6 deficiency.


Folic acid (vitamin B9) deficiency

It is an important component in the diet of all pregnant women and young children.

Folic acid reduces the risk of developing congenital anomalies of the fetus, especially defects of the structures developed from the neural tube - head and spinal cord.

Folic acid also participates in the process of cell formation, and its deficiency causes a decrease in the number of blood and nerve cells and defects in the fetus in the womb.

Symptoms of folate deficiency include: general weakness, irritability, diarrhea, growth retardation, mucosal and tongue abnormalities.





 There are many reasons for vitamin deficiency:

  • Alcohol consumption
  • breastfeeding
  • Socio-economic reasons
  • Eating disorder
  • Diabetes
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Gastric bariatric surgery
  • Excessive intake of iron preparations
  • Food allergies
  • Hemodialysis
  • Strictly restricted diet
  • Developmental and mental problems



Diagnosis of avitaminosis

The first step in the diagnostics of avitaminosis is observation of clinical manifestations, such as: dry skin, hair loss, ulcers near the corners of the lips, muscle and bone pain, weakness, and others. It is necessary to consult a specialist so that he can make a diagnostics on the basis of objective and instrumental-laboratory data and give appropriate recommendations to the patient.


When to see a doctor?

If you suspect that you are deficient in this or that vitamin or nutrient, consult your doctor. Laboratory tests will reveal a deficiency.




Myths and facts about vitamin D 




 For diagnostics and monitoring of vitamin deficiency, "Synevo" We offer:

Name of the test Category Price CODE Response time (working day) ** Location of the analysis **** Buyhf: categories

Health care starts with accurate analyzes





Article created with editorial policy in accordance with defined standards

Call Now Button