Advanced Child Health Profile II & Parasitology

 

Child Health Profile II & Parasitology, Taking into account the age and developmental stage of the child, provides information on problems developed during the growth process, such as Iron deficiency (anemia), inflammatory and infectious processes, Streptococcal infection and its complications, rheumatic diseases, gastrointestinal problems, fat and carbohydrate metabolism problems (diabetes), calcium deficiency (rickets), possible allergic reactions and other conditions of concern.

The profile includes the following 9 studies:

General Information

General Blood Analysis & Eds

The test may be done as part of a routine check-up to detect problems or because the child is not feeling well. Red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet levels can inform your doctor about possible problems such as anemia, infections, inflammation, and more.

Red blood cells They contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the tissues of the body and provides the red color of the blood. When the hemoglobin level is low, the baby may be pale and suffer from easy fatigue, his heart rate and respiratory rate may increase due to lack of oxygen.

Platelets Form blood clots that help stop bleeding in the event of a vascular injury. When the platelet count is low, bleeding easily develops. A child with a low platelet count may easily develop bruises or often have nosebleeds. Blood in the stool and urine is less common.

White blood cells

Neutrophils Fight infections caused by fungi and bacteria. Neutropenia (reduction in quantity) can be caused by a tumor process or by diseases, disorders, or infections that damage the bone marrow. In addition, some medications or conditions can cause neutropenia.

Lymphocytes They also protect the body from viral infections. Lymphocytopenia can be caused by an inherited syndrome, be associated with certain diseases, or be a side effect of medications or other treatments.

Monocytes Promote the removal of dead or damaged tissue and regulate the body's immune response. Infections, tumors, autoimmune diseases and other conditions can lead to an increase in the number of monocytes. The reduction in quantity can be the result of toxins, chemotherapy and other causes.

Eosinophilia (Increase in the number of eosinophils) can be caused most often by an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection.

Of basophils Decreases in quantity may be caused by allergic reactions or infection. The increased number may be caused by a tumor process or other disorders.

Iron

In children, iron is an essential nutrient for the growth and proper functioning of many organs and systems, mainly erythropoiesis. It must be taken from food and its absorption takes place in the upper gastrointestinal tract. When the body's demand for iron is not met, and when its quantity is insufficient to fully support erythrocyte production, the condition Iron deficiency Are called. In 30% of cases, without treatment, it can develop Iron deficiency anemia, which is the most common form of anemia in children.

The causes of iron deficiency are numerous, but in children it is mainly caused by four reasons: depletion of reserves at birth, inadequate intake of iron from food, decreased intestinal absorption, or chronic blood loss.

Signs of iron deficiency:

  • Pale skin and mucous membranes;
  • Decreased appetite;
  • Lack of desire to play;
  • Irritation;
  • Asthenia;
  • Insomnia;
  • headache;
  • Restriction of daily activities;
  • Lack of attention, intelligence, memory, motor skills and speech;
  • Glossitis;
  • Dysphagia;
  • Decreased gastric acidity;
  • Nail dystrophy;
  • Hair brittleness;
  • Amenorrhea;
  • Growth retardation;
  • Susceptibility to infections, etc.

Streptolysin Is hemolysin, which is produced by group A streptococci. In infected patients, streptolysin acts as an antigen against which the body produces specific antibodies. An increase in the concentration of antistreptolytic antibodies indicates the sensitization of the body to streptococcal antigens. The increase in ASL-O concentration starts within 1 week after the detection of streptococcal infection and its level reaches a maximum in 2-4 weeks. In the absence of complications or recurrence of infection, ASL-O levels return to normal after 6-12 months. ASL-O (antistreptolysin-O) Constant increase in the level increases the risk of developing complications of rheumatism. During the recovery period the rate decreases compared to the acute period. Serial examination (at intervals of about 1-2 weeks) has maximum diagnostic and prognostic value. ASL-O titers may also be elevated in healthy carriers of streptococci.

Cholesterol Is a fat-like substance found in every cell of the body. It is found in blood and body tissues in free and esterified form. Free cholesterol is a component of plasma cell membranes, as well as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum membranes, and is a precursor to sex hormones, corticosteroids, bile acids, and vitamin D. Up to 80% of cholesterol is synthesized in the liver, while the rest enters the body through products of animal origin (fatty meat, butter, eggs). Cholesterol is insoluble in water, it is transported between tissues and organs through lipoprotein complexes. Distinguish between cholesterol fractions: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which differ in composition and function.

Glucose Is the most important monosaccharide in the blood. It is often referred to as "blood sugar", which is produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver. Glucose is an indispensable source of energy that maintains cellular activity. The breakdown of glucose for the needs of metabolism is achieved by the process of glycolysis.

When should we take the test?

  • Diabetes screening, diagnostics and monitoring;
  • Diagnosis of hypoglycemia.

    Calcium (Ca) Is a major mineral component of bones. 99% of the body's calcium is in bones and teeth, which is a huge reservoir to maintain serum calcium levels, while the rest is distributed in biological fluids and soft tissues. Calcium ions play an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, heart function and coagulation processes.

    Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism is difficult. The small intestine, skeleton, kidneys, and endocrine system, in particular the parathyroid glands, maintain the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Calcium levels in the body are also affected by: calcitonin, vitamin D, estrogens and androgens.

    Blood protein levels also affect calcium levels because 45% of serum calcium is bound to protein. Thus, a reduction in serum protein, albumin, reduces the total amount of calcium in the serum.

    Abnormal serum calcium levels may indicate parathyroid dysfunction, bone disease, carcinoma, malnutrition, malabsorption syndrome, vitamin D deficiency, and kidney disease. 90% of cases of hypercalcemia occur in hyperparathyroidism. Hypercalcemia is also found in sarcoidosis, adrenal insufficiency and hyperthyroidism and is manifested clinically.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

C-reactive protein is a cyclic, acute-phase protein synthesized by the liver during inflammation. It is used as a reliable marker of the inflammatory process in the body. It grows rapidly but non-specifically in response to tissue damage and inflammation and is a more sensitive and rapid rate than EDS (erythrocyte sedimentation rate). If CRP levels are already elevated, EDS levels may still be normal.

 

 Immunoglobulin AND (IgE)

IgE antibodies are usually found in small amounts in the blood, but higher levels may be a sign that the body is overreacting to allergens. This can lead to Allergic reaction.

IgE levels can also be high when the body is struggling Parasitic infection Or in the face Any problem with the immune system.

Determining the IgE antibody accordingly helps us to determine if the child has an allergic reaction, any problem with the immune system or a parasitic infection.

Parasitological examination (stool)

Examination of a stool sample can provide valuable information about problems with the stomach, intestines, rectum, or other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

Research is especially advisable if the child has a possible Parasitic infection Symptoms such as prolonged diarrhea, blood or mucus in the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, or fever, especially if the parasitic disease was reported at school or kindergarten, if the child recently drank contaminated water, or traveled to a developing country .

When should we conduct an extended child health profile survey?

  • It is advisable to conduct a profile study if the child has anemia, inflammatory and infectious processes, streptococcal infection and its complications, rheumatic diseases, gastrointestinal tract, fat and carbohydrate metabolism problems (diabetes), possible symptoms of calcium deficiency (rheumatoid arthritis).
  • Research is being conducted Prevention - Assessment of the general state of health of the child - In order.

How to prepare for the test / rules of material collection

Blood sample Sampling, for profile studies, is essential Fasting, in the morning.

Feces Before parasitological examination, it should be noted that it is not advisable to conduct research:

  • 10 days after radiological contrast examination of the gastrointestinal tract with barium porridge;
  • During antibiotic therapy or within 14 days of therapy;
  • When taking or receiving mineral oils, bismuth, anti-diarrhea and laxatives 7 days.

Rules for collecting feces for research

  • Before collecting feces for research, you must first purchase a special container.
  • The baby should urinate before collecting feces (exclude the possibility of urine entering the stool). For research, feces should not contain impurities such as urine.
  • Stools should be collected in a specially prepared container for self-defecation.
  • Samples are taken from the middle of the fecal mass with a spoon placed in a special container to collect fecal material. 1/3 or 10-15 g of the vessel volume is sufficient for analysis. Feces.
  • The container should be tightly closed, placed in a clean bag and delivered to the laboratory center.
  • It is not allowed to deliver the feces obtained after the use of enemas, suppositories, castor oil or Vaseline oil to the laboratory for examination.

Research material

Needed for research Venous blood (One sniff)

For parasitological examination - Feces

Possible interpretation of the results

If the test reveals abnormalities, it may be necessary to use additional, other methods of diagnostics. For this, you must consult a specialist, who, taking into account the symptoms, will correctly select the appropriate examinations to make an accurate diagnostics.

 

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Child Health Profile II & Parasitology – 108 GEL, Instead 197 Larisa

 
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