Profile of bone markers Helps to determine how well your body's metabolic processes affect your skeleton. With age, the strength of our bones may weaken due to conditions such as osteoporosis.

Bone is made up of collagen, the protein that gives bone its strength and structure, and calcium phosphate, which is a mineralized complex that strengthens bones. Bone markers are used to diagnose bone diseases (e.g. osteoporosis) and other problems.

The profile of bone markers includes a study of the following parameters (Click on a specific product for more information on each parameter):

General Information

Calcium

Calcium (That) Is a major mineral component of bones. 99% of the body's calcium is in bones and teeth, which is a huge reservoir to maintain serum calcium levels, while the rest is distributed in biological fluids and soft tissues. Calcium is essential for building and maintaining healthy bones throughout life. Calcium, along with other minerals, forms solid crystals that give bones strength and structure.

Small amounts of calcium are absorbed into the blood and used for the healthy functioning of the heart, muscles, blood and nerves. Bones act as a calcium bank. If you do not have enough calcium in your diet, your body will get the required amount of calcium from the bones; if this happens, your bone density (bone strength) will gradually decrease and you may be at risk for developing osteoporosis.

Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism is difficult. The small intestine, skeleton, kidneys, and endocrine system, in particular the parathyroid glands, maintain the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Also affected by calcium levels in the body: Calcitonin, Vitamin D, Estrogens and androgens.

Abnormal serum calcium levels may indicate parathyroid dysfunction. Of bones On disease, Carcinoma, malnutrition, malabsorption syndrome, vitamin D deficiency and kidney disease.

D Vitamin (common)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that is synthesized from provitamins when exposed to sunlight. The most important vitamins are - Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) და Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol). All skeletal cells - chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts - contain both the vitamin D receptor and the enzyme CYP27B1, which is essential for the production of the active metabolite of vitamin D.

Vitamin D has many important functions in your body. It helps maintain the strength of your bones and helps your body absorb minerals important for bone health - calcium and phosphorus. It plays a critical role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its lack causes Rickets და Osteomalacia. You can get a lot of calcium, but if you do not have enough vitamin D, calcium is not effectively absorbed by your body. Excessive intake of vitamin D causes hypercalcemia.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is the second most common mineral in the human body after calcium. It represents 1% of body weight, which means that the adult human body has about 600-700 g of phosphorus. The largest amounts of phosphorus are found in skeletal bone (85% in the form of hydroxyapatite), the rest in the muscles, nerves and blood.

Phosphorus plays an extremely important role in bone formation as well as in maintaining skeletal strength. It acts in combination with calcium, which helps build bones. The right amount of calcium and phosphorus is needed for bone health.

Your body absorbs less phosphorus when calcium levels are very high and vice versa. Vitamin D is also needed for proper absorption of phosphorus.

Alkaline phosphatase

Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) Is an alkaline phosphatase, a specific isoform of bone. It is a glycoprotein found on the surface of osteoblasts, BAP reflects the biosynthetic activity of these bone-forming cells. BAP has been shown to be a sensitive and reliable indicator of bone metabolism. It is an indicator of the rate at which skeletal bone is formed. People with osteoporosis have BAP levels that are three times higher than normal.

Normal bone is constantly undergoing remodeling, during which time bone degradation or resorption is balanced by bone formation. This process is essential for maintaining healthy bones. If the rate of resorption exceeds the rate of formation, the resulting bone loss can lead to osteoporosis and, consequently, a higher susceptibility to fractures.

Osteoporosis Is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and abnormal bone microarchitecture. It can be caused by many clinical conditions, including: high bone metabolism, endocrine disorders (primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and thyrotoxicosis), osteomalacia, renal failure, gastrointestinal diseases, prolonged corticosteroid therapy, and multiple myeloma.

Paget's disease Is another common metabolic bone disease caused by excessive speed of bone remodeling, leading to local damage to the abnormal bone matrix. These injuries can lead to fractures or neurological involvement.

When should we conduct a profile study of bone markers?

  • Once every two years, in patients older than 50 years, for screening for osteoporosis (along with height and weight measurements);
  • Spontaneous fractures, bone pain, bone radiographic changes, growth disorder, dental changes;
  • Tumors (alkaline phosphatase is a tumor marker - used as a detector of liver and bone metastases);
  • Bone tissue pathology, bone diseases (e.g. Paget's disease);
  • Differential diagnosis of rickets and osteomalacia.

How to prepare for the test?

Needed for the test Venous blood.

Required for the test Fasting Presence.

  • You should not take vitamin D or vitamin D supplements for at least 10 days;
  • Do not take calcium supplements for 8-12 hours before the test;
  • It is recommended to limit alcohol intake, smoking and strenuous physical activity for at least 12 hours before the test.

Possible interpretation of the results

If the test reveals abnormalities, it may be necessary to use additional, other methods of diagnosis. For this, you must consult a specialist, who, taking into account the symptoms, will correctly select the appropriate examinations to make an accurate diagnosis.

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Bone Markers Profile - 95 GEL, Instead of 125 GEL

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